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Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in Victoria, 2016

Research by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural
and Resource Economics and Sciences

About my region
December 2016

circular graphic with inter-woven images of agriculture, forestry and fisheries activities

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© Commonwealth of Australia 2016

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ABARES 2016, Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in Victoria, 2016. About my region, Canberra, December. CC BY 3.0.

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Acknowledgements
ABARES relies on the voluntary cooperation of farmers participating in the annual Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey, Australian Dairy Industry Survey, Australian Vegetable Growing Farms Survey and farm survey of irrigation farms in the Murray-Darling Basin to provide data used in the preparation of this report. Without their help, these surveys would not be possible. ABARES farm survey staff collected most of the information presented in this report through on-farm interviews with farmers. In addition, in 2015 a survey of sugarcane producing farms was conducted in Queensland and New South Wales.

This state profile was updated by Clay Mifsud, Aruni Weragoda, Jeremy van Dijk, Peter Martin, Milly Lubulwa, Dale Ashton, Mark Oliver, Beau Hug, Robert Curtotti, Jacob Savage, Peter Lock, Geoff Dunn, Lucy Randall and Evert Bleys.

Contents

Sectors

Regional overview

Employment

Agricultural sector

Fisheries sector
Forestry sector
References

Tables

Number of farms, by industry classification 2014–15
Financial performance, Victoria broadacre industries, 2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Farm cash income of Victoria broadacre farms, by region, 2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Financial performance, Victoria dairy industry, 2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Physical and financial performance, Victoria vegetable industry, 2012–13 to 2014–15, average per farm

Figures

Employment profile, November 2015
Value of agricultural production, 2014–15
Distribution of farms by estimated value of agricultural operations, 2014–15
Real farm cash income, broadacre industries, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, beef industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, sheep industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, grains industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, dairy industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, vegetable industry, 2005–06 to 2014–15, average per farm
Area of native forest, by tenure, Victoria

Maps

Broad land use in Victoria
ABARES Australian broadacre zones and regions

Boxes

Definitions

Regional overview

Victoria covers a total area of around 227 416 square kilometres and is home to approximately 5 354 000 people (ABS 2011). Agricultural land in Victoria occupies 127 952 square kilometres, or around 56 per cent of the state. Areas classified as conservation and natural environments (nature conservation, protected areas and minimal use) occupy 49 100 square kilometres, or 22 per cent of the state (refer to land use map below). The most common land use by area is grazing of modified pasture, which occupies 72 468 square kilometres or 32 per cent of the state.

Broad land use in Victoria

 Broad land use in Victoria. Refer to preceeding text.
Source: Land use of Australia 2010–2011(ABARES, 2016 forthcoming)

Employment

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data from the November 2015 Labour Force Survey indicate that around 2.88 million people were employed in the state of Victoria.

Health Care and Social Assistance was the largest employment sector with 361 000 people, followed by Retail Trade with 327 600 people and Manufacturing with 272 600 people (refer to figure below). Other important employment sectors in the state were Professional, Scientific and Technical Services, Construction, and Education and Training. The Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing sector employed 88 900 people, representing 3 per cent of the state's workforce.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Employment profile, Victoria, November 2015

Refer to tablular data for details:Employment profile, Victoria, November 2014 Note: Annual average of the preceding 4 quarters
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, cat. no. 6291.0, Labour Force, Australia (ABS, 2015)

Agricultural sector

Value of agricultural production

In 2014–15, the gross value of agricultural production in Victoria was $13.1 billion, which was 25 per cent of the total gross value of agricultural production in Australia ($53.6 billion). This is the most recent year for which ABS data are available.

The most important commodities in Victoria (refer to figure below) based on the gross value of agricultural production were milk ($3 billion), followed by cattle and calves ($2 billion) and sheep and lambs ($1.4 billion). These commodities together contributed 49 per cent of the total value of agricultural production in the state.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Value of agricultural production, Victoria, 2014–15

Refer to tablular data for details: Value of agricultural production, Victoria, 2014–15
Note:
The graph shows only data published by the ABS. Some values were not published by the ABS to ensure confidentiality (shown as 'not available' in tabular data).
a The "Other commodities" category includes the total value of commodities not published as well as those with small values.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, cat. no. 7503.0, Value of agricultural commodities produced, Australia (ABS, 2016b)
 

Number and type of farms

ABS data indicate that in 2014–15 there were 27 131 farms in Victoria with an estimated value of agricultural operations of $5 000 or more (refer to table below). The state contains 24 per cent of all farm businesses in Australia.


Number of farms, by industry classification, Victoria, 2014–15
Industry classification Victoria Australia
Number of farms % of StateNumber of farmsContribution of Vic
to Australian total
%


Note: Estimated value of agricultural operations $5 000 or more
   Industries that constitute less than 1 per cent of the region's industry are not shown
   nec Not elsewhere classified
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised) 7 740 29.1 38 043 20.3
Dairy Cattle Farming 4 711 17.7 14 907 31.6
Sheep Farming (Specialised) 2 987 11.2 9 575 31.2
Other Grain Growing 2 939 11.1 8 374 35.1
Grain-Sheep or Grain-Beef Cattle Farming 2 160 8.1 7 330 29.5
Sheep-Beef Cattle Farming 1 415 5.3 5 820 24.3
Grape Growing 1 131 4.3 4 294 26.3
Horse Farming 681 2.6 3 402 20.0
Vegetable Growing (Outdoors) 566 2.1 3 230 17.5
Other Crop Growing nec 503 1.9 3 197 15.7
Other 1 737 6.5 11 896 14.6
Total agriculture 26 571 100 110 068 24.1

Farms in the table above are classified according to the activities that generate most of their value of production. Beef cattle farms (7 740) were the most common, accounting for 29 per cent of all farms in Victoria.

Estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) is a measure of the value of production from farms and a measure of their business size. Around 30 per cent of farms in Victoria had an EVAO of less than $50 000 (refer to graph below). These farms accounted for only 2 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in 2014–15. In comparison, 7 per cent of farms in the state had an EVAO of more than $1 million and accounted for an estimated 45 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in Victoria in 2014–15.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Distribution of farms by estimated value of agricultural operations, Victoria, 2014–15

Refer to tablular data for details: Distribution of farms by estimated value of agricultural operations, Victoria, 2013–14
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics

Farm financial performance — Victoria

Each year, ABARES interviews Australian broadacre, dairy and vegetable producers as part of its annual survey program. Broadacre industries covered in ABARES survey include the grains, grains-livestock, sheep, beef and sheep-beef industries. The information collected is a basis for analysing the current financial position of farms in these industries and expected changes in the short term. This paper uses data from the ABARES Australian agricultural and grazing industries survey (AAGIS), Australian dairy industry survey (ADIS), and Australian vegetable growing industry survey to report estimates of financial performance indicators (Definitions) for broadacre, dairy and vegetable farms in Victoria.

Definitions
Major financial performance indicators
  • Total cash receipts: total revenues received by the business during the financial year.
  • Total cash costs: payments made by the business for materials and services and for permanent and casual hired labour (excluding owner manager, partner and family labour).
  • Farm cash income: total cash receipts - total cash costs
  • Farm business profit: farm cash income + changes in trading stocks - depreciation - imputed labour costs
  • Profit at full equity: return produced by all the resources used in the business, farm business profit + rent + interest + finance lease payments - depreciation on leased items
  • Rate of return: return to all capital used, profit at full equity * 100 / total opening capital
  • Equity ratio: Farm capital minus farm debt expressed as a percentage of farm capital
Industry types
  • Grains: farms mainly engaged in producing broadacre crops such as wheat, coarse grains, oilseeds and pulses, and including farms running sheep and/or beef cattle in conjunction with substantial broadacre crop activity
  • Sheep: farms mainly engaged in running sheep
  • Beef: farms mainly engaged in running beef cattle
  • Dairy: farms mainly engaged in milk production
  • Vegetable: farms mainly engaged in growing vegetables.

Performance of broadacre farms — Victoria

Average farm cash income of Victorian broadacre farms increased in 2014–15 by 6 per cent to $96 600 (refer to table and figure below). Increased cash receipts from the sale of beef cattle, sheep and wool, mainly as a result of higher prices, offset reductions in crop receipts. Total crop receipts declined by around 20 per cent, driven by dry seasonal conditions compared with 2013–14.

Farm cash income of broadacre farms in Victoria is projected to have declined by 7 per cent in 2015–16 to average $91 000 a farm. This is around 14 per cent above the 10–year industry average to 2014–15. The reduction in average farm cash income is a result of reduced winter grain, oilseed and pulse yields because of extended dry seasonal conditions in some parts of Victoria. The reduction in crop receipts in 2015–16 is projected to have been the largest in the Wimmera region, resulting in average broadacre cash income in this region declining to just $20 000 a farm in 2015–16 (refer to Farm cash income by region table below). Receipts from the sale of beef cattle and wool are projected to have increased in 2015–16 as a result of higher beef cattle and wool prices and receipts from sheep and lambs are projected to have declined slightly as a result of lower turn-off. Total cash costs are expected to have remained largely unchanged in 2015–16 compared with 2014–15 despite a decline in expenditure on livestock purchases and fuel.

Real farm cash income, broadacre industries, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, broadacre industries, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey

Financial performance, Victoria broadacre industries
2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Performance indicator 2013–14 2014–15 p RSE 2015–16 y


Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
a Excludes capital appreciation
b Excludes leased plant and equipment
c Average per responding farm
d Equity expressed as a percentage of farm capital
e Rate of return to farm capital at 1 July
f Off-farm income of owner manager and spouse
na Not available
Total cash receipts ($)289 990303 000(4)298 000
Total cash costs ($)198 730206 400(4)207 000
Farm cash income ($)91 27096 600(7)91 000
Farms with negative farm cash income (%)2017(21)19
Farm business profit ($)4 990-12 900(50)-13 000
Profit at full equity a ($)28 60010 300(63)10 000
Farm capital at 30 June b ($) 2 763 2403 153 100(4)na
Farm debt at 30 June c ($) 239 460267 600(9)281 000
Equity ratio c d (%) 9191(1)na
Rate of return a e (%) 1.00.3(63)0.3
Off-farm income c f ($) 33 50035 000(14)na

Average farm cash incomes are projected to have declined in the Central North but to increase in Southern and Eastern Victoria (refer to ABARES Australian broadacre zones and regions map below), mainly driven by increased receipts from beef cattle resulting from higher beef prices, high beef cattle turn-off and higher wool prices.


Farm cash income of Victoria broadacre farms,
by region, 2014–15 to 2015–16,
average per farm
Region 2014–15 p
$
RSE 2015–16 y
$


Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
221: VIC Mallee138 000(21)155 000
222: VIC Wimmera63 000(24)20 000
223: VIC Central North105 000(16)86 000
231: VIC Southern and Eastern Victoria96 000(9)100 000

ABARES Australian broadacre zones and regions

 ABARES Australian broadacre zones and regions
Note: Each region is identified by a unique code of three digits. The first digit identifies the state or territory, the second digit identifies the zone and the third digit identifies the region.
Source: ABARES

Performance of beef industry farms — Victoria

In 2014–15 average farm cash incomes of Victorian beef industry farms more than doubled, increasing from $27 000 in 2013–14 to $59 000 a farm (refer to figure below). This was mainly driven by increased receipts resulting from higher average prices received for beef cattle and increased turn-off. Total cash costs increased as a result of higher expenditure on beef cattle purchases, fodder and repairs and maintenance.

Victorian beef industry farm cash income is expected to have increased marginally in 2015–16 to average $69 000 a farm. This is around 84 per cent above the 10–year average to 2014–15 and the highest average farm cash income of beef industry farms in Victoria since 2004–05. Further increases in prices for beef cattle are expected to have resulted in an increase in beef cattle receipts despite lower cattle turn-off. Greater expenditure on beef cattle purchases, repairs and maintenance and fertiliser is expected to have resulted in average total cash costs increasing.

Real farm cash income, beef industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details:  Real farm cash income, beef industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey

Performance of sheep industry farms — Victoria

In 2014–15, farm cash income of Victorian sheep industry farms more than doubled to an average of $103 000 a farm (refer to figure below). Higher prices for adult sheep and wool, together with increased sales of sheep and wool, led to the increase in average farm cash income. This was despite an increase in farm cash costs mainly as a result of increased expenditure on sheep purchases, fodder, fertiliser and repairs and maintenance.

In 2015–16, farm cash income of sheep industry farms in Victoria is expected to have increased to an average of $121 000 a farm, around 80 per cent above the 10–year average to 2014–15. Despite a decline in sales of sheep, total cash receipts are estimated to have increased as a result of higher prices for sheep and wool together with an expected increase in the quantity of wool sold. Total cash costs are expected to have declined by around 5 per cent mainly as a result of reduced expenditure on sheep purchases and fodder.

Real farm cash income, sheep industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, sheep industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey

Performance of grains industry farms — Victoria

Average farm cash income of Victorian grains industry farms decreased by around 30 per cent to $130 000 a farm in 2014–15 (refer to figure below). Crop receipts were reduced as dry seasonal conditions resulted in lower production of winter grains, oilseeds and pulse crops. For mixed crop–livestock farms, these lower crop receipts were partly offset by increased receipts from the sale of sheep, lambs and beef cattle. Total cash costs decreased slightly reflecting decreased expenditure on fertiliser and fuel.

In 2015–16, farm cash income is projected to have declined further for Victorian grains industry farms to an average of $90 000 a farm. This is around 30 per cent below the 10–year average to 2014–15. Crop receipts are projected to decrease as a result of reduced winter crop production.

Real farm cash income, grains industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, grains industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey

Performance of dairy industry farms — Victoria

Average farm cash incomes of Victorian dairy farms decreased from $175 000 to $152 000 in 2014–15 (refer to table and figure below). Decline in total farm cash income in 2014–15 was driven mainly by reduced farmgate milk prices and increased cash costs offsetting an increase in total milk production. Total cash receipts increased around 4 per cent to an average of around $730 000 a farm as a result of increased milk production.

In 2015–16, farm cash income of Victorian dairy industry farms is projected to have declined to an average of $87 000 a farm (refer to figure below). This is around 20 per cent below the 10–year average to 2014–15. The expected decline in farm cash income is mainly as a result of lower farmgate milk prices and lower milk production. Total farm cash costs are also expected to increase as a result of increased expenditure on fodder as a result of dry seasonal conditions.

Real farm cash income, dairy industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, dairy industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Dairy Industry Survey


Financial performance, Victoria dairy industry
2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Performance indicator 2013–14 2014–15 p RSE 2015–16 y


Source: ABARES Australian Dairy Industry Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
a Excludes capital appreciation
b Excludes leased plant and equipment
c Average per responding farm
d Equity expressed as a percentage of farm capital
e Rate of return to farm capital at 1 July
f Off-farm income of owner manager and spouse
na Not available
Total cash receipts ($)703 720730 000(6)670 000
Total cash costs ($)528 720577 800(6)582 000
Farm cash income ($)174 990152 100(15)87 000
Farms with negative farm cash income (%)1724(42)19
Farm business profit ($)79 03066 800(29)-21 000
Profit at full equity a ($) 146 090128 700(18)37 000
Farm capital at 30 June b ($) 3 452 1003 979 400(6)na
Farm debt at 30 June c ($) 750 860806 400(12)830 000
Equity ratio c d (%) 7880(3)na
Rate of return a e (%) 4.33.4(16)0.9
Off-farm income c f ($) 24 88016 800(35)na

Performance of vegetable industry farms — Victoria

There were 537 vegetable growing farms in Victoria in 2014–15, accounting for around 21 per cent of Australian vegetable growing farms. Most farms were located around Melbourne, extending east through Gippsland and in the irrigation regions along the Murray river.

Above average yields and higher prices for most vegetable crops are estimated to have resulted in increased average farm cash income in Victoria in 2013–14 to $312 300 a farm (refer to table below). The area planted to vegetables increased and yields were above average, resulting in increased vegetable production. Vegetable prices were higher for the main vegetable types grown, resulting in higher vegetable cash receipts. Reduced expenditure on repairs and maintenance, interest and plant hire offset higher expenditure on most other inputs.

Physical and financial performance, Victoria vegetable industry
2012–13 to 2014–15, average per farm
Selected estimates 2012–13 RSE 2013–14 p RSE 2014–15 y RSE


Source: ABARES Australian Vegetable Growing Farms Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
Vegetable cash receipts ($) 1 083 100 (11) 1 210 200 (21) 1 196 000 (28)
Area sown to vegetables (hectares) 56 (12) 58 (16) 58 (28)
Quantity vegetables produced (tonnes) 1 460 (13) 1 538 (23) 1 543 (26)
Farm cash income ($) 218 900 (22) 312 300 (28) 317 000 (29)

Estimated farm cash income in 2014–15 remained similar to 2013–14, averaging $317 000 a farm. This was 39 per cent higher than the 10–year average farm cash income for Victoria to 2014–15 (refer to figure below). The area planted to vegetables and yields remained about the same between 2013–14 and 2014–15. Vegetable prices decreased for lettuce, pumpkin and tomato, but increased for cabbage, carrot and cauliflower. Higher estimated average expenditure on hired labour, fertiliser and contracts paid was offset by lower average expenditure on fuel, oil and grease and packing charges and materials.

Real farm cash income, vegetable industry
2005–06 to 2014–15, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, vegetable industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Vegetable Growing Farms Survey

Fisheries sector

In 2013–14 the gross value of Victoria's fisheries production (both aquaculture and wild–catch) was $80 million, an increase of 6 per cent ($4.8 million) from 2012–13. Victoria contributed 3 per cent of the total value of Australian fisheries production in 2013–14. In value terms, the wild–catch sector accounted for 68 per cent ($54.6 million) of the state's total production and the aquaculture sector accounted for the remaining 32 per cent ($25.4 million).

Victoria's wild–catch fisheries sector is dominated by two main products—abalone and Southern rocklobster—which account for
39 per cent and 40 per cent, respectively, of the total value of wild-caught production in 2013–14. Over the last decade the real value of Victoria's wild-caught fisheries products has reduced by 43 per cent to $54.6 million in 2013–14.

The product for which the real value of production declined most over the past decade is wild—caught abalone, falling by 65 per cent to $21.5 million in 2013–14. This is largely attributable to the Abalone Viral Ganglioneuritis disease which has significantly reduced abalone production in the Victorian wild–catch sector in recent years. A large proportion of abalone is exported, mostly to Hong Kong, China and Japan. Exchange rate movements have a significant effect on the value of abalone exports and, in turn, production.

Commonwealth fisheries active in the waters off Victoria include the Commonwealth Trawl Sector (main source of domestic fresh fish for Sydney and Melbourne markets) and the Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook Sectors (supplies gummy shark or 'flake' to Melbourne) of the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery. The Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery, Small Pelagic Fishery (mostly fishmeal for aquaculture and agriculture) and the Southern Squid Jig Fishery also operate in the waters off Victoria.

In 2013–14 the volume of Victoria's aquaculture production increased by 5 per cent (107 tonnes) to 2 420 tonnes. Salmonids, blue mussels and abalone accounted for 49 per cent, 27 per cent and 18 per cent respectively of this volume and 35 per cent, 8 per cent and 50 per cent respectively of the total value of Victorian aquaculture production in 2013–14.

In 2013–14, fisheries products exported from Victoria were valued at $167 million. This value includes State and Commonwealth fisheries products exported from the ports of Victoria, which may be sourced from Victorian waters or other parts of the country. The main export products include abalone and Southern rocklobster. Vietnam, Hong Kong and Japan are the major destinations for Victorian fisheries exports, accounting for 55 per cent, 19 per cent and 10 per cent of the total value of exports in 2013–14, respectively. Other major export destinations include Singapore (8 per cent) and China (2 per cent).

Recreational fishing is popular in Victoria. In the national survey of recreational fishers undertaken in the early 2000s it was found that Victoria had approximately 550 000 recreational fishers that fished in the 12 months to May 2000, an estimated 12.7 per cent of Victoria's population (Henry & Lyle 2003). This includes gamefishing for species such as southern bluefin tuna (Green et al. 2012). Recreational fishing also includes diving for Southern rocklobster, abalone, and scallops and hook and line fishing for a range of finfish species, such as snapper, King George whiting, black bream and flathead. Freshwater anglers target rainbow and brown trout, as well as native freshwater fish.

Forestry sector

In 2013–14, the total plantation area in Victoria was approximately 433 100 hectares, comprised of approximately 206 000 hectares of hardwood plantations, 226 000 hectares of softwood plantations and 1 100 hectares of other plantations. The main hardwood species planted is blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus), and the main softwood species planted is radiata pine (Pinus radiata).

In 2011, the most recent year for which data are available, there were approximately 7.7 million hectares of native forests in Victoria, comprised mainly of Eucalypt medium open (approximately 3.1 million hectares), Eucalypt tall open (1.4 million hectares), Eucalypt medium woodland (1.1 million hectares) and Eucalypt mallee woodland (1.1 million hectares) forest types. The majority of native forests are in nature conservation reserves (approximately 3.3 million hectares), approximately 3 million hectares are multiple-use public forest available for timber production and 1.2 million hectares are privately managed (refer to figure below). Major timber industries are located in Ballarat, Beauford, Benalla, Colac, Koondrook, Maryvale, Milltown, Myrtleford, Nowa Nowa, Portland, Wangaratta and Yarram.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Area of native forest, by tenure, Victoria

Refer to tablular data for details: Area of native forest, by tenure for Victoria
Source: ABARES Australia's State of the Forests Report 2013



In 2014–15, the volume of native hardwood logs harvested was 1.3 million cubic metres valued at $109 million. The volume of plantation hardwood logs harvested was 2.8 million cubic metres valued at $197 million. The volume of softwood harvested was 3.9 million cubic metres valued at $280 million.

Total sales and service income in the Victorian forest and wood product industry was estimated at approximately $6.1 billion in 2013–14, of which $3.6 billion was from the sale of paper and paper products, and the remaining $2.6 billion was generated from other wood product sales.

In 2011, the Victorian forestry sector employed 21 826 workers (0.9 per cent of the total employed workforce in Victoria) compared with 23 672 (1.1 per cent) in 2006. The number of people employed includes forestry support services and timber wholesaling.

References

ABS 2011, Census of Population and Housing, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

ABS 2015, Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, Quarterly, Nov 2015, cat. no. 6291.0.55.003, Australian Bureau Statistics, Canberra.

ABS 2016a, Agricultural Commodities, Australia, 2014–2015, cat. no. 7121.0, Australian Bureau Statistics, Canberra.

ABS 2016b, Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2014–15, cat. no. 7503.0, Australian Bureau Statistics, Canberra.

ABARES 2015, Catchment scale land use of Australia – update March 2015, ABARES, Canberra, April. CC by 3.0. http://www.agriculture.gov.au/abares/publications/display?url=http://143.188.17.20/anrdl/DAFFService/display.php?fid=pb_luausg9abll20150415_11a.xml

ABARES 2016, Australian forest and wood products statistics: September and December quarters 2015, Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, Canberra, May.

Green C, Brown P, Giri K, Bell J, & Conron S 2012, Quantifying the recreational catch of southern bluefin tuna off the Victorian coast. Recreational Fishing Grant Program, Research Report, Department of Primary Industries, Victoria.

Henry GW & Lyle JM 2003, The National Recreational and Indigenous Fishing Survey, FRDC Project No. 99/158.

Montreal Process Implementation Group for Australia and National Forest Inventory Steering Committee 2013, Australia's State of the Forests Report 2013, ABARES, Canberra, December.