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Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in Queensland, 2016

Research by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural
and Resource Economics and Sciences

About my region
December 2016

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© Commonwealth of Australia 2016

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ABARES 2016, Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in Queensland, 2016. About my region, Canberra, December. CC BY 3.0.

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Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES)
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Acknowledgements
ABARES relies on the voluntary cooperation of farmers participating in the annual Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey, Australian Dairy Industry Survey, Australian Vegetable Growing Farms Survey and farm survey of irrigation farms in the Murray-Darling Basin to provide data used in the preparation of this report. Without their help, these surveys would not be possible. ABARES farm survey staff collected most of the information presented in this report through on-farm interviews with farmers. In addition, in 2015 a survey of sugarcane producing farms was conducted in Queensland and New South Wales.

This state profile was updated by Clay Mifsud, Aruni Weragoda, Jeremy van Dijk, Peter Martin, Milly Lubulwa, Dale Ashton, Mark Oliver, Beau Hug, Robert Curtotti, Jacob Savage, Peter Lock, Geoff Dunn, Lucy Randall and Evert Bleys.

Contents

Sectors

Regional overview

Employment

Agricultural sector

Fisheries sector
Forestry sector
References

Tables

Number of farms, by industry classification 2014–15
Financial performance, Queensland broadacre industries, 2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Farm cash income of Queensland broadacre farms, by region, 2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Financial performance, Queensland dairy industry, 2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Physical and financial performance, vegetable industry, Queensland, 2012–13 to 2014–15, average per farm
Physical and financial performance, sugarcane growing farm businesses, Australia, 2013–14 and 2014–15
Physical and financial performance, sugarcane growing farm businesses, by region, 2013–14 and 2014–15

Figures

Employment profile, November 2015
Value of agricultural production, 2014–15
Distribution of farms by estimated value of agricultural operations, 2014–15
Real farm cash income, broadacre industries, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, beef industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, grains industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, dairy industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, vegetable industry, 2005–06 to 2014–15, average per farm
Area of native forest, by tenure, Queensland

Maps

Broad agricultural land use in Queensland
ABARES Australian broadacre zones and regions
Queensland and New South Wales sugarcane regions

Boxes

Definitions

Regional overview

Queensland covers a total area of around 1 730 648 square kilometres and is home to approximately 4 332 700 people (ABS 2011). Agricultural land in Queensland occupies 1 459 398 square kilometres, or around 84.33 per cent of the state. Areas classified as conservation and natural environments (nature conservation, protected areas and minimal use) occupy 215 429 square kilometres, or 12 per cent of the state. The most common land use by area is grazing native vegetation, which occupies 1 182 400 square kilometres or 87 per cent of the state (see map below).

Broad land use in Queensland

 Broad land use in the Queensland of Queensland. Refer to preceeding text.
Source: ABARES 2015

Employment

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data from the November 2015 Labour Force Survey indicate that around 2.34 million people were employed in Queensland.

Health Care and Social Assistance was the largest employment sector with 303 500 people, followed by Retail Trade with 255 700 people and Construction with 204 800 people (refer to figure below). Other important employment sectors in Queensland were Education and Training; Professional, Scientific and Technical Services; and Accommodation and Food Services. The Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing sector employed 58 400 people, representing 2.5 per cent of Queensland's workforce.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Employment profile, Queensland, November 2015

Refer to tablular data for details:Employment profile, Queensland, November 2014 Note: Annual average of the preceding 4 quarters
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, cat. no. 6291.0, Labour Force, Australia (ABS, 2015)

Agricultural sector

Value of agricultural production

In 2014–15, the gross value of agricultural production in Queensland was $11.9 billion, which was 22 per cent of the total gross value of agricultural production in Australia ($53.6 billion). This is the most recent year for which ABS data are available.

The most important commodities in Queensland (refer to figure below) based on the gross value of agricultural production were cattle and calves ($5 billion), followed by sugarcane ($1 billion) and Poultry ($588 million). These commodities together contributed 58 per cent of the total value of agricultural production in the state.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Value of agricultural production, Queensland, 2014–15

Refer to tablular data for details: Value of agricultural production, Queensland, 2014–15
Note:
The graph shows only data published by the ABS. Some values were not published by the ABS to ensure confidentiality (shown as 'not available' in tabular data).
a The "Other commodities" category includes the total value of commodities not published as well as those with small values.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, cat. no. 7503.0, Value of agricultural commodities produced, Australia (ABS, 2016b)
 

Number and type of farms

ABS data indicate that in 2014–15 there were 23 035 farms in Queensland with an estimated value of agricultural operations of $5 000 or more (refer to table below). The state contains 21 per cent of all farm businesses in Australia.


Number of farms, by industry classification, Queensland, 2014–15
Industry classification Queensland Australia
Number of farms % of StateNumber of farmsContribution of Qld
to Australian total
%


Note: Estimated value of agricultural operations $5 000 or more
   Industries that constitute less than 1 per cent of the region's industry are not shown
   nec Not elsewhere classified
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised) 12 172 52.8 38 043 32.0
Sugar Cane Growing 2 983 13.0 14 907 20.0
Other Grain Growing 1 355 5.9 9 575 14.2
Other Fruit and Tree Nut Growing 1 076 4.7 8 374 12.9
Grain-Sheep or Grain-Beef Cattle Farming 1 033 4.5 7 330 14.1
Vegetable Growing (Outdoors) 766 3.3 5 820 13.2
Horse Farming 683 3.0 4 294 15.9
Dairy Cattle Farming 572 2.5 3 402 16.8
Other Crop Growing nec 371 1.6 3 230 11.5
Other 2 024 8.8 15 092 13.4
Total agriculture 23 035 100 110 068 20.9

Farms in the table above are classified according to the activities that generate most of their value of production. Beef Cattle farms (12 172) were the most common, accounting for 53 per cent of all farms in Queensland.

Estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) is a measure of the value of production from farms and a measure of their business size. Around 38 per cent of farms in Queensland had an EVAO of less than $50 000 (refer to graph below). These farms accounted for only 3 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in 2014–15. In comparison, 7 per cent of farms in the state had an EVAO of more than $1 million and accounted for an estimated 52 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in Queensland in 2014–15.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Distribution of farms by estimated value of agricultural operations, Queensland, 2014–15

Refer to tablular data for details: Distribution of farms by estimated value of agricultural operations, Queensland, 2013–14
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics

Farm financial performance — Queensland

Each year, ABARES interviews Australian broadacre, dairy and vegetable producers as part of its annual survey program. Broadacre industries covered in ABARES survey include the grains, grains-livestock, sheep, beef and sheep-beef industries. The information collected is a basis for analysing the current financial position of farms in these industries and expected changes in the short term. This paper uses data from the ABARES Australian agricultural and grazing industries survey (AAGIS), Australian dairy industry survey (ADIS), and Australian vegetable growing industry survey to report estimates of financial performance indicators (Definitions) for broadacre, dairy and vegetable farms in Queensland.

Definitions
Major financial performance indicators
  • Total cash receipts: total revenues received by the business during the financial year.
  • Total cash costs: payments made by the business for materials and services and for permanent and casual hired labour (excluding owner manager, partner and family labour).
  • Farm cash income: total cash receipts - total cash costs
  • Farm business profit: farm cash income + changes in trading stocks - depreciation - imputed labour costs
  • Profit at full equity: return produced by all the resources used in the business, farm business profit + rent + interest + finance lease payments - depreciation on leased items
  • Rate of return: return to all capital used, profit at full equity * 100 / total opening capital
  • Equity ratio: Farm capital minus farm debt expressed as a percentage of farm capital
Industry types
  • Grains: farms mainly engaged in producing broadacre crops such as wheat, coarse grains, oilseeds and pulses, and including farms running sheep and/or beef cattle in conjunction with substantial broadacre crop activity.
  • Sheep: farms mainly engaged in running sheep.
  • Beef: farms mainly engaged in running beef cattle.
  • Dairy: farms mainly engaged in milk production.
  • Vegetable: farms mainly engaged in growing vegetables.

Performance of broadacre farms — Queensland

Farm cash incomes of all Queensland regions increased in 2014–15 except for the West and South West regions (see map below). This increase was achieved through higher receipts from the sale of beef cattle, wheat and pulses. Average broadacre farm cash income in Queensland is projected to have increased by a further 34 per cent in 2015–16 to an average of $166 000 a farm (refer to graph and table below). This is around 80 per cent above the 10–year average to 2014–15.

For Queensland broadacre farms, average receipts from beef cattle are expected to have increased by around 14 per cent and crop receipts by around 30 per cent, resulting in average total farm receipts increasing by 15 per cent in 2015–16. Average total cash costs are projected to have increased by around 7 per cent in 2015–16 mainly because of an increase in beef cattle purchases in some regions and increased spending on repairs and maintenance, fertiliser, hired labour and crop and pasture chemicals.

Real farm cash income, broadacre industries, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, broadacre industries, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey

Financial performance, Queensland broadacre industries
2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Performance indicator 2013–14 2014–15 p RSE 2015–16 y


Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
a Excludes capital appreciation
b Excludes leased plant and equipment
c Average per responding farm
d Equity expressed as a percentage of farm capital
e Rate of return to farm capital at 1 July
f Off-farm income of owner manager and spouse
na Not available
Total cash receipts ($)372 830416 100(5)480 000
Total cash costs ($)301 620294 500(6)314 000
Farm cash income ($)71 200121 600(8)166 000
Farms with negative farm cash income (%)3020(15)20
Farm business profit ($)-84 100-47 400(27)34 000
Profit at full equity a ($)-34 720-1 000(1302)77 000
Farm capital at 30 June b ($) 5 358 5705 369 500(3)na
Farm debt at 30 June c ($) 691 350722 000(10)704 000
Equity ratio c d (%) 8686(2)na
Rate of return a e (%) -0.60.0(1302)1.4
Off-farm income c f ($) 27 78029 300(10)na

Despite reductions in cattle turn-off, increases in average farm cash income are projected for all Queensland regions in 2015–16 except North Queensland Coastal (refer to table below). This is driven by further increases in beef cattle prices and increased crop receipts resulting mainly from above average winter grain yields and increased grain legume production in southern Queensland.


Farm cash income of Queensland broadacre farms, by region
2014–15 to 2015–16, average per farm
Region 2014–15 p
$
RSE 2015–16 y
$


Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
311: QLD Cape York and the Gulf 331 000 (26) 633 000
312: QLD West and South West 133 000 (47) 176 000
313: QLD Central North 140 000 (31) 169 000
314: QLD Charleville – Longreach 188 000 (17) 263 000
321: QLD Eastern Darling Downs 97 000 (18) 97 000
322: QLD Darling Downs and Central Highlands 162 000 (12) 223 000
331: QLD South Queensland Coastal 58 000 (21) 106 000
332: QLD North Queensland Coastal 96 000 (15) 84 000

ABARES Australian broadacre zones and regions

 ABARES Australian broadacre zones and regions
Note: Each region is identified by a unique code of three digits. The first digit identifies the state or territory, the second digit identifies the zone and the third digit identifies the region.
Source: ABARES

Performance of beef industry farms — Queensland

Average farm cash incomes of Queensland beef industry farms increased by around 60 per cent in 2014–15 to average $116 000 a farm (refer to figure below). This is around 30 per cent above the 10–year average to 2013–14. Higher beef cattle prices, together with an increase in beef cattle turn-off, resulted in increased beef cattle receipts in Queensland beef industry farms.

Average farm cash income of Queensland beef industry farms is projected to have increased to $152 000 a farm in 2015–16. This is around 70 per cent above the average for the 10–years to 2014–15. A further rise in the average price for beef cattle is projected to have resulted in increased total cash receipts for beef cattle farms, despite lower cattle turn-off in 2015–16. Farm cash costs for Queensland beef industry farms are expected to have remained largely unchanged in 2015–16.

Real farm cash income, beef industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details:  Real farm cash income, beef industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey

Performance of grains industry farms — Queensland

Farm cash income of Queensland grains industry farms increased by around 78 per cent in 2014–15, averaging $169 000 a farm (refer to figure below). This increase was partly realised through increased cash receipts from pulses and oilseeds in 2014–15. Higher cattle turn-off and higher cattle prices in 2014–15 also contributed to increased cash receipts of mixed livestock and crop enterprises. Total cash costs remained mostly unchanged from 2013–14.

In 2015–16, average farm cash income of Queensland grains industry farms is expected to have increased to $236 000 a farm. This is around 97 per cent higher than the 10–year average to 2014–15. This increase in farm cash income mainly reflects increased crop receipts as a result of above average winter grain yields and increased grain legume production in southern Queensland. Greater receipts from beef cattle, lamb and wool are also expected to contribute to higher total cash receipts in mixed livestock–crop enterprises. Total cash receipts are expected to have increased by around 27 per cent to an average of $660 000 a farm, while total cash costs are expected to have increased by 20 per cent, averaging $424 000 a farm.

Real farm cash income, grains industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, grains industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey

Performance of dairy industry farms — Queensland

Average farm cash incomes of Queensland dairy farms increased in 2014–15 as a result of higher milk prices offsetting a reduction in milk production and higher farm cash costs (see figure below). Average farm cash incomes of dairy farms increased from $73 000 to $91 800 a farm (refer to table below).

In 2015–16, average farm cash income of Queensland dairy industry farms is projected to have declined slightly to $91 000 a farm, which is 22 per cent below the 10–year average to 2014–15. This reduction is mainly a result of increased cash costs. Average total cash costs are expected to have increased to $449 000 in 2015–16, mainly driven by increased expenditure on purchased fodder and repairs and maintenance.

Real farm cash income, dairy industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, dairy industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Dairy Industry Survey


Financial performance, Queensland dairy industry
2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Performance indicator 2013–14 2014–15 p RSE 2015–16 y


Source: ABARES Australian Dairy Industry Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
a Excludes capital appreciation
b Excludes leased plant and equipment
c Average per responding farm
d Equity expressed as a percentage of farm capital
e Rate of return to farm capital at 1 July
f Off-farm income of owner manager and spouse
na Not available
Total cash receipts ($)510 990541 500(7)540 000
Total cash costs ($)437 710449 700(7)449 000
Farm cash income ($)73 28091 800(24)91 000
Farms with negative farm cash income (%)3430(44)32
Farm business profit ($)-17 800-8 000(284)-34 000
Profit at full equity a ($) 25 77043 200(41)15 000
Farm capital at 30 June b ($) 3 271 2203 592 300(6)na
Farm debt at 30 June c ($) 554 010648 900(17)621 000
Equity ratio c d (%) 8382(3)na
Rate of return a e (%) 0.81.3(42)0.4
Off-farm income c f ($) 32 11016 800(17)na

Performance of vegetable growing farms — Queensland

There were 526 vegetable growing farms in Queensland in 2014–15, accounting for around 20 per cent of Australian vegetable growing farms. Most of those farms were located in the Darling Downs, around Bundaberg and Bowen, and in the Burdekin delta.

Average farm cash income of Queensland vegetable growing farms is estimated to have declined in 2013–14 to $133 800 a farm (refer to table below). Crop yields were generally just below average and lower prices for the main vegetables grown in Queensland contributed to reduced average total cash receipts. Average total cash costs also increased as a result of increased expenditure on hired labour associated with planting and harvesting a larger vegetable crop.

Physical and financial performance, Queensland vegetable industry
2012–13 to 2014–15, average per farm
Selected estimates 2012–13 RSE 2013–14 p RSE 2014–15 y RSE


Source: ABARES Australian Vegetable Growing Farms Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
Vegetable cash receipts ($) 705 040 (18) 833 700 (24) 686 000 (26)
Area sown to vegetables (hectares) 33 (18) 48 (13) 35 (25)
Quantity vegetables produced (tonnes) 593 (16) 827 (19) 704 (26)
Farm cash income ($) 165 790 (30) 133 800 (29) 151 000 (32)

Average farm cash income is estimated to have increased in 2014–15 to $151 000 a farm (refer to figure below). This is despite a large decline in average vegetable cash receipts. Lower average total cash costs—particularly expenditure on hired labour, contracts paid and seed—offset lower average total cash receipts.

Real farm cash income, vegetable industry
2001–02 to 2014–15, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, vegetable industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Vegetable Growing Farms Survey

Performance of sugarcane growing farms

The Australian sugarcane industry is mainly located along Australia's north-eastern coastline from Grafton in northern New South Wales to Mossman in Far North Queensland (see map below). In 2013–14 there were an estimated 3 508 sugarcane farm businesses in Australia (farm businesses with an estimated value of agricultural operations of at least $30 000).

Queensland and New South Wales sugarcane regions

Sugarcane growing regions of Queensland and New South Wales Source: ABARES

Farm cash income of Australian sugarcane growing farm businesses averaged $89 700 in 2013–14 (refer to table below). Farm cash income ranged from an average of $14 900 for businesses with less than 50 hectares planted to sugarcane, to an average of $384 200 for those with more than 250 hectares of sugarcane.

Average farm cash incomes varied across regions, mainly in line with the proportion of large and small farms, as well as with differences in sugarcane yield, Commercial Cane Sugar (CCS) percentage and regional production conditions. In 2013–14 average farm cash income was highest in Far North Queensland, averaging $120 300 a farm (refer to table below).

In 2014–15, lower prices for sugar and increases in farm cash costs are estimated to have reduced farm cash income for the majority of sugarcane businesses. Overall, average farm cash income of sugarcane farm businesses is estimated to have declined from $89 700 a farm in 2013–14 to $70 000 in 2014–15.

Farm cash incomes declined most in southern Queensland regions because of dry seasonal conditions and in the area around Cairns as a result of Cyclone Ita in 2014. In contrast, farm cash incomes are estimated to have increased in the Burdekin region as a result of increased sugarcane production.


Physical and financial performance,
sugarcane growing farm businesses, Australia,
2013–14 and 2014–15

average per farm
Selected estimates 2013–14 2014–15 y


Source: ABARES Australian Sugarcane Farm Businesses Survey
a rate of return on capital at July 1, excluding capital expenditure
y provisional estimate
Area planted to sugarcane (ha) 120 121
Sugarcane yield (t/ha) 82 87
Sugarcane produced (t) 9 880 10 534
Total cash receipts ($) 462 000 449 000
Total cash costs ($) 372 300 379 000
Farm cash income ($) 87 700 70 000
Rate of return a (%) 0.7 0.0

Physical and financial performance, sugarcane growing farm businesses,
by region, 2013–14 to 2014–15

average per farm
Sugar region
Financial year
Area
(ha)
Yield
(t/ha)
Production
(t)
Total
cash receipts
($)
Total
cash costs
($)
Farm
cash income
($)
Rate of return
(%) a


Source: ABARES Australian Sugarcane Farm Businesses Survey
a rate of return excluding capital appreciation
y provisional estimate
Far North Queensland
2013–14 123 94 11 560 534 100 413 900 120 300 1.7
2014–15 y 128 89 11 381 463 000 418 000 45 000 -0.7
Herbert
2013–14 118 76 9 018 388 000 291 200 96 900 1.1
2014–15 y 121 76 9 167 373 000 287 000 86 000 0.5
Burdekin
2013–14 157 102 16 019 682 600 578 700 103 800 0.9
2014–15 y 156 115 17 944 707 000 583 000 124 000 1.3
Mackay
2013–14 128 73 9 333 433 800 351 600 82 100 1.3
2014–15 y 127 80 10 146 418 000 355 000 62 000 0.6
Bundaberg
2013–14 108 73 7 906 522 900 428 800 94 100 0.0
2014–15 y 111 67 7 486 488 000 464 000 24 000 -2.1

These financial performance results were sourced from ABARES survey of Australian sugarcane growing farm businesses, which collected a comprehensive set of financial, physical and management information on farm businesses that grow sugarcane. Comprehensive results can be found at the following link:
http://www.agriculture.gov.au/abares/publications/display?url=http://143.188.17.20/anrdl/DAFFService/display.php?fid=pb_asffpd9absf20151218.xml

Fisheries sector

In 2013–14 the total gross value of Queensland's fisheries production was $279.8 million, an increase of 1 per cent ($3 million) from 2012-13. Queensland contributed 11 per cent of the total value of Australian fisheries production in 2013–14. In value terms, the wild-catch sector accounted for 68 per cent ($190.7 million) of the state's total production and the aquaculture sector accounted for the remaining 32 per cent ($89.1 million).

Queensland's wild-catch fisheries sector provides a range of fisheries products. The highest contribution being from prawns, which account for 37 per cent of the total value of wild-catch fisheries production with a value of $70.1 million, followed by crabs (16 per cent; $30 million) and coral trout (14 per cent; $27.5 million). Over the last decade the real value of Queensland's wild-caught fisheries products has reduced by 39 per cent. Prawns and shark, showed the largest decline in the value of production over the past decade, reducing by 47 per cent and 89 per cent respectively. Competition from imported prawns in the domestic market has also placed significant downward pressure on prices in recent years.

The value of Queensland's aquaculture production has increased by 9 per cent in 2013–14 to $89.1 million. Prawn and barramundi farming account for the largest share of production by value, with prawns accounting for 66 per cent, and $59 million of production, followed by barramundi (28 per cent; $25.1 million).

Commonwealth fisheries active in the waters off the east coast of Queensland include the Commonwealth Eastern Tuna and Billfish fishery (mainly supplying export markets with tuna) and the Coral Sea Fishery. The final proposed Commonwealth Coral Sea Marine Reserves network released on 14 June 2012 is estimated to displace $4.0 million of gross value of production from these fisheries when the zoning comes into effect.

In 2013–14, Queensland's fisheries product exports were valued at $170.1 million. The main export products include live and fresh, chilled or frozen fish, prawns and rocklobster. Hong Kong, Japan and the United States are the major destinations for Queensland fisheries exports, accounting for 53 per cent, 15 per cent and 7 per cent of the total value of exports in 2013–14, respectively. Other major export destinations include Vietnam (5 per cent), China (3 per cent) and Singapore (3 per cent).

Recreational fishing is popular in Queensland. The results of the 2013–14 state wide and regional recreational fishing survey report that recreational fishing continues to be a popular activity; however the participation rate has dropped from 17 per cent in 2010 to 15 per cent in 2013. In the 12 months prior to November 2013 approximately 700 000 Queenslanders went recreational fishing (QDAFF 2015). Total expenditure in the sector is estimated to be between $350 million and $420 million in 2008–09 (DEEDI 2009). The tropical waters of Queensland are also a key area for tourism, attracting anglers from around the world and Australia. Popular target species include crabs, prawns and a range of finfish species including cods and groupers, coral trout, redthroat emperor, rosy snapper, and mackerel. For freshwater activity some key species caught include barramundi, eels, silver perch, and yabby and blueclaw crayfish.

Forestry sector

In 2013–14, the total plantation area in Queensland was approximately 233 500 hectares, comprised of approximately 41 600 hectares of hardwood plantations, 189 400 hectares of softwood plantations and 2 500 hectares of other plantations. The main hardwood species planted are Dunn's white gum (Eucalyptus dunnii), lemon-scented gum (Corymbia citriodora), shining gum (Eucalyptus nitens) and teak (Tectona grandis). The main softwood species planted are Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea), hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii), slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and pine hybrids.

In 2011, the most recent year for which data are available, there were approximately 50.8 million hectares of native forests in Queensland, comprised mainly of Eucalypt medium woodland (26.8 million hectares), Melaleuca (5.2 million hectares), Acacia (4.5 million hectares), Eucalypt medium open (4.5 million hectares), and Rainforest (2 million hectares) forest types. The majority of the native forests are leasehold forest (approximately 30.7 million hectares), approximately 10.1 million hectares are privately managed, 5 million hectares are in nature conservation reserves, and 2.9 million hectares are multiple-use public forest available for timber production (see figure below). Major timber processing industries are located at Ayr, Bondoola, Burpengary, Caboolture, Diamond Valley, Dingo, Imbil, Injune, Owanyilla, Palmview, Peachester, Proserpine, Roma, Theodore, Toolara Forest, Townsville and Yarraman.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Area of native forest, by tenure, Queensland

Refer to tablular data for details: Area of native forest, by tenure for Queensland
Source: ABARES Australia's State of the Forests Report 2013



In 2014–15, the volume of native hardwood logs harvested was 259 000 cubic metres valued at $38 million. The volume of plantation hardwood logs harvested was 41 000 cubic metres valued at $2 million. The volume of softwood harvested, including native cypress pines, was 1.8 million cubic metres valued at $141 million.

Queensland's forest and wood product industry generated approximately $3 billion of sales and service income in 2013–14. The income was generated from the sale of wood products, such as structural wood and woodchips, estimated at approximately $2 billion. The remaining $1 billion was generated from the sale of paper and paper products.

In 2011, Queensland's forestry sector employed 12 845 workers (0.6 per cent of the total employed workforce) compared with 16 411 (0.9 per cent) in 2006. The number of people employed includes forestry support services and timber wholesaling.

References

ABS 2011, Census of Population and Housing, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

ABS 2015, Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, Quarterly, Nov 2015, cat. no. 6291.0.55.003, Australian Bureau Statistics, Canberra.

ABS 2016a, Agricultural Commodities, Australia, 2014–2015, cat. no. 7121.0, Australian Bureau Statistics, Canberra.

ABS 2016b, Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2014–15, cat. no. 7503.0, Australian Bureau Statistics, Canberra.

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