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Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in South Australia, 2016

Research by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural
and Resource Economics and Sciences

About my region
December 2016

circular graphic with inter-woven images of agriculture, forestry and fisheries activities

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© Commonwealth of Australia 2016

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ABARES 2016, Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in South Australia, 2016. About my region, Canberra, December. CC BY 3.0.

ABARES project 43009

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Acknowledgements
ABARES relies on the voluntary cooperation of farmers participating in the annual Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey, Australian Dairy Industry Survey, Australian Vegetable Growing Farms Survey and farm survey of irrigation farms in the Murray-Darling Basin to provide data used in the preparation of this report. Without their help, these surveys would not be possible. ABARES farm survey staff collected most of the information presented in this report through on-farm interviews with farmers. In addition, in 2015 a survey of sugarcane producing farms was conducted in Queensland and New South Wales.

This state profile was updated by Clay Mifsud, Aruni Weragoda, Jeremy van Dijk, Peter Martin, Milly Lubulwa, Dale Ashton, Mark Oliver, Beau Hug, Robert Curtotti, Jacob Savage, Peter Lock, Geoff Dunn, Lucy Randall and Evert Bleys.

Contents

Sectors

Regional overview

Employment

Agricultural sector

Fisheries sector
Forestry sector
References

Tables

Number of farms, by industry classification 2014–15
Financial performance, South Australia broadacre industries, 2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Farm cash income of South Australia broadacre farms, by region, 2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Financial performance, South Australia dair y industry, 2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Physical and financial performance,South Australia vegetable industry, 2012–13 to 2014–15, average per farm

Figures

Real farm cash income, broadacre industries, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, beef industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, sheep industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, grains industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, dairy industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, vegetable industry, 2005–06 to 2014–15, average per farm
Area of native forest, by tenure, South Australia

Maps

Broad land use in South Australia
ABARES Australian broadacre zones and regions

Boxes

Definitions

Regional overview

South Australia covers a total area of around 983 482 square kilometres and is home to approximately 1 596 600 people (ABS 2011). Agricultural land in South Australia occupies 522 343 square kilometres, or about 53.11 per cent of the state (refer to land use map below). Areas classified as conservation and natural environments (nature conservation, protected areas and minimal use) occupy 417 650 square kilometres, or 42.5 per cent of the state. The most common land use by area is grazing native vegetation, which occupies 410 100 square kilometres or 42 per cent of the state.

Broad land use in South Australia

Broad land use in South Australia. Refer to preceeding text.
Source: Land use of Australia 2010–2011(ABARES, 2016 forthcoming)

Employment

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data from the November 2015 Labour Force Survey indicate that around 803 200 people people were employed in South Australia.

Health Care and Social Assistance was the largest employment sector with 120 400 people, followed by Retail Trade with 90 200 people, and Manufacturing with 70 900 people (refer to figure below). Other important employment sectors in the region were Education and Training and Construction. The Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing sector employed 40 100 people, representing around 5 per cent of the state's workforce.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Employment profile, South Australia, November 2015

Refer to tablular data for details:Employment profile, South Australia, November 2014 Note: Annual average of the preceding 4 quarters
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, cat. no. 6291.0, Labour Force, Australia (ABS, 2015)

Agricultural sector

Value of agricultural production

In 2014–15, the gross value of agricultural production in South Australia was $6.2 billion, which was 12 per cent of the total gross value of agricultural production in Australia ($53.6 billion). This is the most recent year for which ABS data are available.

The most important commodities in South Australia (refer to figure below) based on the gross value of agricultural production were wheat ($1.3 billion), followed by sheep and lambs ($556 million) and cattle and calves ($522 million). These commodities together contributed 39 per cent of the total value of agricultural production in the state.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Value of agricultural production, South Australia, 2014–15

Refer to tablular data for details: Value of agricultural production, South Australia, 2014–15
Note:
The graph shows only data published by the ABS. Some values were not published by the ABS to ensure confidentiality (shown as 'not available' in tabular data).
a The "Other commodities" category includes the total value of commodities not published as well as those with small values.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, cat. no. 7503.0, Value of agricultural commodities produced, Australia (ABS, 2016b)
 

Number and type of farms

ABS data indicate that in 2014–15 there were 11 351 farms in South Australia with an estimated value of agricultural operations of $5 000 or more (refer to table below). The state contains 10 per cent of all farm businesses in Australia.


Number of farms, by industry classification, South Australia, 2014–15
Industry classification South Australia Australia
Number of farms % of SateNumber of farmsContribution of SA
to Australian total
%


Note: Estimated value of agricultural operations $5 000 or more
   Industries that constitute less than 1 per cent of the region's industry are not shown
   nec Not elsewhere classified
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
Other Grain Growing 2 935 25.9 38 043 7.7
Grape Growing 1 830 16.1 14 907 12.3
Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised) 1 505 13.3 9 575 15.7
Sheep Farming (Specialised) 1 397 12.3 8 374 16.7
Grain-Sheep or Grain-Beef Cattle Farming 1 207 10.6 7 330 16.5
Sheep-Beef Cattle Farming 626 5.5 5 820 10.8
Vegetable Growing (Outdoors) 318 2.8 4 294 7.4
Dairy Cattle Farming 302 2.7 3 402 8.9
Vegetable Growing (Under Cover) 157 1.4 3 230 4.9
Horse Farming 141 1.2 3 197 4.4
Citrus Fruit Growing 140 1.2 2 596 5.4
Other 794 7.0 9 299 8.5
Total agriculture 11 351 100 110 068 10.3

Farms in the table above are classified according to the activities that generate most of their value of production. Other grain growing farms (2 935) were the most common, accounting for about 26 per cent of all farms in South Australia.

Estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) is a measure of the value of production from farms and a measure of their business size. Around 33 per cent of farms in South Australia had an EVAO of less than $50 000 (refer to graph below). These farms accounted for only 2 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in 2014–15. In comparison, 22 per cent of farms in the state had an EVAO of more than $500 000 and accounted for an estimated 76 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in South Australia in 2014–15.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Distribution of farms by estimated value of agricultural operations, South Australia, 2014–15

Refer to tablular data for details: Distribution of farms by estimated value of agricultural operations, South Australia, 2013–14
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics

Farm financial performance — South Australia

Each year, ABARES interviews Australian broadacre, dairy and vegetable producers as part of its annual survey program. Broadacre industries covered in ABARES survey include the grains, grains-livestock, sheep, beef and sheep-beef industries. The information collected is a basis for analysing the current financial position of farms in these industries and expected changes in the short term. This paper uses data from the ABARES Australian agricultural and grazing industries survey (AAGIS), Australian dairy industry survey (ADIS), and Australian vegetable growing industry survey to report estimates of financial performance indicators (Definitions) for broadacre, dairy and vegetable farms in South Australia.

Definitions
Major financial performance indicators
  • Total cash receipts: total revenues received by the business during the financial year.
  • Total cash costs: payments made by the business for materials and services and for permanent and casual hired labour (excluding owner manager, partner and family labour).
  • Farm cash income: total cash receipts - total cash costs
  • Farm business profit: farm cash income + changes in trading stocks - depreciation - imputed labour costs
  • Profit at full equity: return produced by all the resources used in the business, farm business profit + rent + interest + finance lease payments - depreciation on leased items
  • Rate of return: return to all capital used, profit at full equity * 100 / total opening capital
  • Equity ratio: Farm capital minus farm debt expressed as a percentage of farm capital
Industry types
  • Grains: farms mainly engaged in producing broadacre crops such as wheat, coarse grains, oilseeds and pulses, and including farms running sheep and/or beef cattle in conjunction with substantial broadacre crop activity.
  • Sheep: farms mainly engaged in running sheep.
  • Beef: farms mainly engaged in running beef cattle.
  • Dairy: farms mainly engaged in milk production.
  • Vegetable: farms mainly engaged in growing vegetables.

Performance of broadacre farms — South Australia

Incomes of South Australian broadacre farms increased in 2014–15 to an average of $199 300 a farm as a result of increased winter crop production, higher beef cattle turn-off and higher prices for barley, pulses, beef cattle, sheep and lambs.

Broadacre farm cash incomes are projected to have increased further to average $220 000 a farm in 2015–16 (refer to table and figure below). If achieved, This is around 65 per cent above the 10-year average to 2014–15.

Increased winter crop production resulting mainly from an increase in the area planted to winter crops, together with a small increase in beef cattle, sheep, lamb and wool receipts, is projected to have resulted in average farm cash income increasing in all regions in 2015–16.

Slightly lower winter crop yields in the South East, Murray Lands and Yorke Peninsula regions resulting from drier seasonal conditions are projected to have resulted in only a very small increase in average farm cash income in these regions in 2015–16 (refer to table below). In the Eyre Peninsula, winter crop yields increased and the projected increase in average farm cash income is larger. In the North Pastoral region, higher beef cattle, sheep and wool prices, together with increased turn-off of beef cattle, are projected to have resulted in a large increase in average farm cash income.

Real farm cash income, broadacre industries, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, broadacre industries, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey

Financial performance, South Australia broadacre industries
2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Performance indicator 2013–14 2014–15 p RSE 2015–16 y


Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
a Excludes capital appreciation
b Excludes leased plant and equipment
c Average per responding farm
d Equity expressed as a percentage of farm capital
e Rate of return to farm capital at 1 July
f Off-farm income of owner manager and spouse
na Not available
Total cash receipts ($) 484 130 530 600 (12) 551 000
Total cash costs ($) 324 860 331 300 (13) 331 000
Farm cash income ($) 159 270 199 300 (13) 220 000
Farms with negative farm cash income (%) 15 7 (37) 15
Farm business profit ($) 28 560 64 600 (29) 95 000
Profit at full equity a ($) 69 660 102 200 (21) 132 000
Farm capital at 30 June b ($) 3 960 660 4 126 500 (9) na
Farm debt at 30 June c ($) 441 740 425 100 (15) 409 000
Equity ratio c d (%) 88 89 (1) na
Rate of return a e (%) 1.8 2.6 (17) 3.1
Off-farm income c f ($) 29 220 35 400 (10) na

Farm cash income of South Australia broadacre farms,
by region, 2014–15 to 2015–16, average per farm
Region 2014–15 p
$
RSE 2015–16 y
$


Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
411: North Pastoral243 000(30)479 000
421: Eyre Peninsula230 000(37)260 000
422: Murray Lands and Yorke Peninsula241 000(18)242 000
431: South East122 000(21)132 000

ABARES Australian broadacre zones and regions

ABARES Australian broadacre zones and regions
Note: Each region is identified by a unique code of three digits. The first digit identifies the state or territory, the second digit identifies the zone and the third digit identifies the region.
Source: ABARES

Performance of beef industry farms — South Australia

In 2013–14, a reduction in prices received for beef cattle resulted in farm cash income of South Australian beef farms falling sharply.

Beef industry farm cash incomes then increased in 2014–15 as a result of a 24 per cent increase in average beef cattle prices and higher beef cattle turn-off. High cattle turn-off was partly a result of dry seasonal conditions in the South East and North Pastoral regions with high cattle prices further encouraging turn-off. Average farm cash income of South Australian beef farms is estimated to have increased from an average of $68 080 a farm in 2013–14 to an average of $99 600 in 2014–15 (refer to figure below).

Beef cattle turn-off is projected to have decreased in 2015–16 as a result of reduced numbers of saleable cattle. Despite lower turn-off, further increase in saleyard prices for beef cattle are projected to have resulted in an increase in farm receipts, more than offsetting an expected increase in expenditure on purchase of beef cattle, to result in average farm cash income of South Australian beef farms increasing to $162 000 a farm in 2015–16. If achieved, This is more than double the 10–year average to 2014–15 of $75 700.

Real farm cash income, beef industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details:  Real farm cash income, beef industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey

Performance of sheep industry farms — South Australia

Farm cash incomes were historically high in real terms for South Australian sheep industry farms in 2010–11 and 2011–12 (refer to figure below). However, in 2012–13, a reduction in average prices received for lambs, adult sheep and wool resulted in farm cash income of South Australian sheep farms falling back in line with historical trends.

In 2014–15, higher prices for sheep and lambs combined with increased turn-off resulted in higher farm cash receipts. Farm cash income of sheep industry farms increased to an average of $140 300 a farm.

In 2015–16, higher sheep, lamb and wool prices are projected to have resulted in a further increase in farm cash receipts. Despite increased expenditure on fodder as a result of dry seasonal conditions in south–eastern regions, average farm cash income of sheep industry farms is projected to have increased to $162 000 a farm, around 65 per cent above the industry average of $98 100 a farm for the ten years to 2014–15.

Real farm cash income, sheep industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, sheep industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey

Performance of grains industry farms — South Australia

Incomes of South Australian grains farms increased in 2014–15 to an average of $260 900 a farm as a result of increased winter crop production and higher prices for barley and pulses.

In 2015–16, farm cash incomes of South Australian grains farms are projected to have increased to average $265 000 a farm. This is around 50 per cent above the 10–year average to 2014–15(refer to figure below).

Real farm cash income, grains industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, grains industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industry Survey

Overall, crop receipts are projected to have increased in 2015–16, mainly as a result of increased winter crop production resulting from higher yields on the Eyre Peninsula and an overall increase in pulse receipts. In addition, total cash costs for grains industry farms are projected to decrease slightly in 2015–16, as a result of reduced fuel and interest costs compared with 2014–15.

Performance of dairy industry farms — South Australia

Average farm cash income of South Australian dairy farms decreased from an average of $162 980 a farm in 2013–14 to $133 500 in 2014–15 (refer to table below). Lower prices received for milk were partly offset by increased receipts from cattle sales, but farm cash costs were also higher, particularly as expenditure on fodder increased.

In 2015–16, farm cash income of South Australian dairy industry farms is projected to have declined further to an average of $79 000 a farm, around 49 per cent below the 10–year average to 2015–16 (refer to figure below). This reflects the effects of lower forecast milk prices, reduced milk production and a further increase in expenditure on fodder as a result of dry seasonal conditions and increased fodder prices in 2015–16.

Real farm cash income, dairy industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, dairy industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Dairy Industry Survey


Financial performance, South Australia dairy industry
2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Performance indicator 2013–14 2014–15 p RSE 2015–16 y


Source: ABARES Australian Dairy Industry Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
a Excludes capital appreciation
b Excludes leased plant and equipment
c Average per responding farm
d Equity expressed as a percentage of farm capital
e Rate of return to farm capital at 1 July
f Off-farm income of owner manager and spouse
na Not available
Total cash receipts ($) 936 270 941 900 (10) 901 000
Total cash costs ($) 773 290 808 400 (10) 822 000
Farm cash income ($) 162 980 133 500 (26) 79 000
Farms with negative farm cash income (%) 11 15 (53) 40
Farm business profit ($) 62 910 -9 000 (410) -50 000
Profit at full equity a ($) 154 040 76 900 (14) 25 000
Farm capital at 30 June b ($) 4 217 210 4 428 200 (10) na
Farm debt at 30 June c ($) 1 117 720 1 146 800 (14) 1 045 000
Equity ratio c d (%) 74 74 (4) na
Rate of return a e (%) 3.7 1.7 (47) 0.6
Off-farm income c f ($) 19 510 23 000 (21) na

Performance of vegetable industry farms — South Australia

There were 406 vegetable growing farms in South Australia in 2014–15, accounting for around 16 per cent of Australian vegetable growing farms. Most farms were located in the Mallee, the Riverland and the northern Adelaide plains.

Average farm cash income of vegetable growing farms in South Australia is estimated to have declined in 2013–14 to around $133 300 a farm (refer to table below), mainly as a result of increase in farm cash costs.

Physical and financial performance, South Australia vegetable industry,
2012–13 to 2014–15, average per farm
Selected estimates 2012–13 RSE 2013–14 p RSE 2014–15 y RSE


Source: ABARES Australian Vegetable Growing Farms Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
Vegetable cash receipts ($) 642 630 (16) 654 900 (17) 712 000 (26)
Area sown to vegetables (hectares) 32 (19) 36 (17) 35 (26)
Quantity vegetables produced (tonnes) 1 330 (16) 1 288 (20) 1 415 (27)
Farm cash income ($) 196 390 (23) 133 300 (30) 139 000 (37)

Average farm cash income is estimated to have increased in 2014–15 to $139 000, still 32 per cent lower than the 9–year average (in real terms) for South Australia to 2014–15 (refer to figure below). Average vegetable cash receipts increased as a result of higher vegetable crop yields and estimated average total cash costs declined because of reduced expenditure on fuel.

Real farm cash income, vegetable industry
2005–06 to 2014–15, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, vegetable industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Vegetable Growing Farms Survey

Fisheries sector

In 2013–14 the gross value of South Australia's fisheries production was around $392 million, a decrease of 11 per cent ($49 million) from 2012–13. South Australia contributed 16 per cent of the total value of Australian fisheries production in 2013–14. In value terms, the wild–catch sector accounted for 54 per cent ($210 million) of the state's total production and the aquaculture sector accounted for the remaining 46 per cent ($181 million).

South Australia's wild–catch fisheries sector is dominated by four main products—Southern rocklobster, prawns, abalone and Australian sardines—which account for 52 per cent, 14 per cent, 10 per cent and 9 per cent respectively of the total value of wild-caught production in 2013–14. Over the last decade the real value of South Australia's wild-caught fisheries products has reduced by 12 per cent to $210 million (2013–14). The products for which the real value of production declined most over the past decade are wild-caught prawns and abalone, reducing by $27 million and $19 million respectively. A large proportion of abalone is exported, mostly to Hong Kong, China and Japan. Exchange rate movements have a significant effect on the value of abalone exports and, in turn, production. Prawns are mostly sold in the domestic market, where competition from imports has placed significant downward pressure on prices in recent years.

Most Australian sardine production is used as a high quality feed in tuna ranching operations located off Port Lincoln in South Australia. A small portion also goes toward human consumption, the recreational fishing bait market and premium brands of pet food.

In 2013–14 the value of South Australia's aquaculture production is estimated to have decreased by 25 per cent from $243 million in 2012–13 to $181 million in 2013–14. Southern bluefin tuna is the single most valuable species in the region and South Australia's aquaculture industry, and is ranched by the Commonwealth Southern Bluefin Tuna fishery for fattening in sea cages at Port Lincoln. Southern bluefin tuna accounted for 67 per cent (122 million) of the value of South Australian aquaculture production, followed by oysters (18 per cent; $32 million) and abalone (6 per cent; $11 million).

Commonwealth fisheries active in waters off South Australia include the Commonwealth Trawl Sector (main source of domestic fresh fish for Sydney and Melbourne markets) the Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook Sectors (supplies gummy shark or flake to Melbourne) of the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery and the Great Australian Bight sector of the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery harvesting mainly redfish and flathead. The Small Pelagic Fishery (mostly fishmeal for aquaculture and agriculture) also operates in the waters off South Australia.

In 2013–14, South Australia's fisheries product exports were valued at $236 million. The main export products include tuna, Southern rocklobster and abalone. Japan and Vietnam are the major destinations for South Australian fisheries exports, accounting for 50 per cent and 30 per cent of the total value of exports in 2013–14, respectively. Other major export destinations include Hong Kong (14 per cent) and Singapore (2 per cent).

Recreational fishing is popular in South Australia with an estimated 236 000 South Australians (5 years and over) participating in the activity in the 12 months prior to October 2007 (PIRSA 2010). In its survey of recreational fishers in South Australia PIRSA (2010) found that most fishing effort is directed to the Gulf St.Vincent and Kangaroo Island waters (42 per cent), followed by Spencer Gulf ( 27 per cent), West Coast (11per cent) and the South East waters (7 per cent). Most (87 per cent) fishing effort occurred in marine waters, including estuaries, and inshore and offshore waters. The remaining 13 per cent of effort was in freshwater activity, with the majority of this effort occurring in the River Murray. The key species caught by recreational fishers include King George whiting, snapper, southern garfish, southern calamari, blue swimmer crab, southern rocklobster, mulloway, blacklip and greenlip abalone, pipi, golden perch and murray cod.

Forestry sector

In 2013–14, the total plantation area in South Australia was approximately 188 500 hectares, comprised of approximately 59 700 hectares of hardwood plantations, 128 500 hectares of softwood plantations and 300 hectares of other plantations. The main hardwood species planted is blue gum (Eucalyptus.globulus), and the main softwood species planted is radiata pine (Pinus radiata).

In 2011, there were approximately 4.4 million hectares of native forests in South Australia, comprised mainly of Eucalypt mallee woodland (approximately 3.5 million hectares), Eucalypt medium open (205 300 hectares) and Eucalypt medium woodland (193 000 hectares) forest types. Approximately 1.5 million hectares of the native forests are in nature conservation reserves, 1.5 million hectares are privately owned, and 1.3 million hectares are leasehold forest (refer to figure below).

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Area of native forest, by tenure, South Australia

Refer to tablular data for details: Area of native forest, by tenure for South Australia
Source: ABARES Australia's State of the Forests Report 2013



In 2014–15, the volume of plantation hardwood logs harvested was 862 000 cubic metres valued at $68 million. The volume of softwood harvested was 2.7 million cubic metres valued at $173 million.

Total sales and service income in the South Australian forest and wood product industry was estimated at approximately $1.7 billion in 2013–14. The income generated from the sale of wood products was valued at approximately $879 million while the remaining $811 million was generated from the sale services associated with paper and paper products.

In 2011, South Australia's forestry sector employed 6 498 workers (0.9 per cent of the total employed workforce in South Australia) compared with 7 812 (1.2 per cent) in 2006. The number of people employed includes forestry support services and timber wholesaling.

References

ABS 2011, Census of Population and Housing, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

ABS 2015, Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, Quarterly, Nov 2015, cat. no. 6291.0.55.003, Australian Bureau Statistics, Canberra.

ABS 2016a, Agricultural Commodities, Australia, 2014–2015, cat. no. 7121.0, Australian Bureau Statistics, Canberra.

ABS 2016b, Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2014–15, cat. no. 7503.0, Australian Bureau Statistics, Canberra.

ABARES 2015, Catchment scale land use of Australia – update March 2015, ABARES, Canberra, April. CC by 3.0. http://www.agriculture.gov.au/abares/publications/display?url=http://143.188.17.20/anrdl/DAFFService/display.php?fid=pb_luausg9abll20150415_11a.xml

ABARES 2016, Australian forest and wood products statistics: September and December quarters 2015, Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, Canberra, May.

Montreal Process Implementation Group for Australia and National Forest Inventory Steering Committee 2013, Australia's State of the Forests Report 2013, ABARES, Canberra, December.

PIRSA 2010, South Australian recreational fishing guide 2009, Department of Primary Industries and Resources South Australia, Adelaide.