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Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in Western Australia, 2016

Research by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural
and Resource Economics and Sciences

About my region
December 2016

circular graphic with inter-woven images of agriculture, forestry and fisheries activities

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© Commonwealth of Australia 2016

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ABARES 2016, Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in Western Australia, 2016. About my region, Canberra, December. CC BY 3.0.

ABARES project 43009

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Acknowledgements
ABARES relies on the voluntary cooperation of farmers participating in the annual Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey, Australian Dairy Industry Survey, Australian Vegetable Growing Farms Survey and farm survey of irrigation farms in the Murray-Darling Basin to provide data used in the preparation of this report. Without their help, these surveys would not be possible. ABARES farm survey staff collected most of the information presented in this report through on-farm interviews with farmers. In addition, in 2015 a survey of sugarcane producing farms was conducted in Queensland and New South Wales.

This state profile was updated by Clay Mifsud, Aruni Weragoda, Jeremy van Dijk, Peter Martin, Milly Lubulwa, Dale Ashton, Mark Oliver, Beau Hug, Robert Curtotti, Jacob Savage, Peter Lock, Geoff Dunn, Lucy Randall and Evert Bleys.

Contents

Sectors

Regional overview

Employment

Agricultural sector

Fisheries sector
Forestry sector
References

Tables

Number of farms, by industry classification 2014–15
Financial performance, Western Australia broadacre industries, 2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Farm cash income of Western Australia broadacre farms, by region, 2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Financial performance, Western Australia dairy industry, 2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Physical and financial performance, Western Australia vegetable industry, 2012–13 to 2014–15, average per farm

Figures

Employment profile, November 2015
Value of agricultural production, 2014–15
Distribution of farms by estimated value of agricultural operations, 2014–15
Real farm cash income, broadacre industries, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, beef industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, sheep industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, grains industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, dairy industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm
Real farm cash income, vegetable industry, 2005–06 to 2014–15, average per farm
Area of native forest, by tenure, Western Australia

Maps

Broad agricultural land use in Western Australia
ABARES Australian broadacre zones and regions

Boxes

Definitions

Regional overview

Western Australia covers a total area of around 2 529 875 square kilometres and is home to approximately 2 239 200 people (ABS 2011). Agricultural land in Western Australia occupies 1 064 736 square kilometres, or around 42.09 per cent of the state. Areas classified as conservation and natural environments (nature conservation, protected areas and minimal use) occupy 1 395 170 square kilometres, or 55 per cent of the state (refer to land use map below). The most common land use by area is minimal use, which occupies 926 000 square kilometres or 37 per cent of the state, followed by grazing of native vegetation, occupying 896 500 square kilometres or 36 per cent of the state.

Broad land use in Western Australia

 Broad land use in Western Australia. Refer to preceeding text.
Source: Land use of Australia 2010–2011(ABARES, 2016 forthcoming)

Employment

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data from the November 2015 Labour Force Survey indicate that around 1 365 900 people were employed in the state of Western Australia.

Health Care and Social Assistance was the largest employment sector with 158 700 people, followed by Construction with 151 300 people and Retail Trade with 129 800 people (refer to figure below). Other important employment sectors in the region were Professional, Scientific and Technical Services; Education and Training; and Mining. The Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing sector employed 27 200 people, representing 2 per cent of the state's workforce.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Employment profile, Western Australia, November 2015

Refer to tablular data for details:Employment profile, Western Australia, November 2014 Note: Annual average of the preceding 4 quarters
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, cat. no. 6291.0, Labour Force, Australia (ABS, 2015)

Agricultural sector

Value of agricultural production

In 2014–15, the gross value of agricultural production in Western Australia was $7.9 billion, which was 15 per cent of the total gross value of agricultural production in Australia ($53.6 billion). This is the most recent year for which ABS data are available.

The most important commodities in Western Australia (refer to figure below) based on the gross value of agricultural production were wheat ($2.7 billion), followed by barley ($890 million) and canola ($866 million). These commodities together contributed 57 per cent of the total value of agricultural production in the state.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Value of agricultural production, Western Australia, 2014–15

Refer to tablular data for details: Value of agricultural production, Western Australia, 2014–15
Note:
The graph shows only data published by the ABS. Some values were not published by the ABS to ensure confidentiality (shown as 'not available' in tabular data).
a The "Other commodities" category includes the total value of commodities not published as well as those with small values.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, cat. no. 7503.0, Value of agricultural commodities produced, Australia (ABS, 2016b)
 

Number and type of farms

ABS data indicate that in 2014–15 there were 10 075 farms in the Western Australia with an estimated value of agricultural operations of $5 000 or more (refer to table below). The state contains 9 per cent of all farm businesses in Australia.


Number of farms, by industry classification, Western Australia, 2014–15
Industry classification Western Australia Australia
Number of farms % of StateNumber of farms Contribution of WA
to Australian total
%


Note: Estimated value of agricultural operations $5 000 or more
   Industries that constitute less than 1 per cent of the region's industry are not shown
   nec Not elsewhere classified
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
Other Grain Growing 3 161 31.4 38 043 8.3
Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised) 2 172 21.6 14 907 14.6
Sheep Farming (Specialised) 1 145 11.4 9 575 12.0
Grain-Sheep or Grain-Beef Cattle Farming 1 007 10.0 8 374 12.0
Grape Growing 442 4.4 7 330 6.0
Vegetable Growing (Outdoors) 408 4.0 5 820 7.0
Sheep-Beef Cattle Farming 285 2.8 4 294 6.6
Dairy Cattle Farming 208 2.1 3 402 6.1
Horse Farming 207 2.1 3 230 6.4
Other Fruit and Tree Nut Growing 177 1.8 3 197 5.5
Other Crop Growing nec 136 1.3 2 596 5.2
Other 727 7.2 9 299 7.8
Total agriculture 10 075 100 110 068 9.2

Farms in the table above are classified according to the activities that generate most of their value of production. Other grain growing farms (3161) were the most common, accounting for 31 per cent of all farms in Western Australia.

Estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) is a measure of the value of production from farms and a measure of their business size. Around 33 per cent of farms in Western Australia had an EVAO of less than $50 000 (refer to graph below). These farms accounted for only 1 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in 2014–15. In comparison, 19 per cent of farms in the state had an EVAO of more than $1 million and accounted for an estimated 72 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in Western Australia in 2014–15.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Distribution of farms by estimated value of agricultural operations, Western Australia, 2014–15

Refer to tablular data for details: Distribution of farms by estimated value of agricultural operations, Western Australia, 2013–14
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics

Farm financial performance — Western Australia

Each year, ABARES interviews Australian broadacre, dairy and vegetable producers as part of its annual survey program. Broadacre industries covered in ABARES survey include the grains, grains-livestock, sheep, beef and sheep-beef industries. The information collected is a basis for analysing the current financial position of farms in these industries and expected changes in the short term. This paper uses data from the ABARES Australian agricultural and grazing industries survey (AAGIS), Australian dairy industry survey (ADIS), and Australian vegetable growing industry survey to report estimates of financial performance indicators (Definitions) for broadacre, dairy and vegetable farms in Western Australia.

Definitions
Major financial performance indicators
  • Total cash receipts: total revenues received by the business during the financial year.
  • Total cash costs: payments made by the business for materials and services and for permanent and casual hired labour (excluding owner manager, partner and family labour).
  • Farm cash income: total cash receipts - total cash costs
  • Farm business profit: farm cash income + changes in trading stocks - depreciation - imputed labour costs
  • Profit at full equity: return produced by all the resources used in the business, farm business profit + rent + interest + finance lease payments - depreciation on leased items
  • Rate of return: return to all capital used, profit at full equity * 100 / total opening capital
  • Equity ratio: Farm capital minus farm debt expressed as a percentage of farm capital
Industry types
  • Grains: farms mainly engaged in producing broadacre crops such as wheat, coarse grains, oilseeds and pulses, and including farms running sheep and/or beef cattle in conjunction with substantial broadacre crop activity
  • Sheep: farms mainly engaged in running sheep
  • Beef: farms mainly engaged in running beef cattle
  • Dairy: farms mainly engaged in milk production
  • Vegetable: farms mainly engaged in growing vegetables.

Performance of broadacre farms — Western Australia

Incomes of Western Australian broadacre farms increased in 2014–15 to an average of $300 100 a farm as a result of higher receipts from livestock and a small reduction in farm cash costs from lower fuel prices and lower interest rates on farm debt. Receipts from sheep, lambs and beef cattle increased as a result of higher average prices received and increased turn-off of beef cattle. Overall, higher livestock receipts offset a reduction in crop receipts as winter crop production declined from the large winter crop produced in 2013–14. Overall, the reduction in crop receipts was small, cushioned by pool payments received in 2014–15 from sale of the large 2013–14 wheat and barley crops.

In 2015–16, decline in wheat and barley yields and lower grain quality driven by variable seasonal conditions is projected to have resulted in a decrease in average broadacre crop receipts, particularly in the Central and South Wheat Belt (refer to ABARES Australian broadacre zones and regions map below). On mixed grains-livestock farms, the impact of lower quality grain on farm cash receipts is expected to have been partly offset by increased wool receipts resulting from higher wool prices as well as by pool payments received on grain delivered in 2014–15. In the northern pastoral regions of the Kimberley and the Pilbara, and the South West regions, higher beef cattle prices are projected to have increased farm receipts and raise average farm cash income (refer to table below).

Overall, broadacre farm cash income in Western Australia is projected to have increased to an average of $326 000 a farm in 2015–16 (refer to table and figure below). If achieved, This is around 80 per cent above the 10–year average to 2014–15.

Real farm cash income, broadacre industries, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, broadacre industries, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey

Financial performance, Western Australia broadacre industries
2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Performance indicator 2013–14 2014–15 p RSE 2015–16 y


Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
a Excludes capital appreciation
b Excludes leased plant and equipment
c Average per responding farm
d Equity expressed as a percentage of farm capital
e Rate of return to farm capital at 1 July
f Off-farm income of owner manager and spouse
na Not available
Total cash receipts ($) 932 080 952 700 (6) 1 003 000
Total cash costs ($) 657 870 652 600 (7) 676 000
Farm cash income ($) 274 210 300 100 (10) 326 000
Farms with negative farm cash income (%) 21 11 (34) 10
Farm business profit ($) 161 850 126 800 (21) 172 000
Profit at full equity a ($) 250 340 197 500 (14) 243 000
Farm capital at 30 June b ($) 5 329 600 5 595 500 (6) na
Farm debt at 30 June c ($) 1 011 060 843 000 (12) 876 000
Equity ratio c d (%) 81 84 (2) na
Rate of return a e (%) 4.8 3.6 (14) 4.3
Off-farm income c f ($) 24 730 25 200 (14) na

Farm cash income of Western Australia broadacre farms, by region
2014–15 to 2015–16, average per farm
Region 2014–15 p
$
RSE 2015–16 y
$


Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
511: Kimberly901 000(26)1 402 000
512: Pilbara and Southern Rangelands467 000(161)831 000
521: Central and South Wheat Belt346 000(10)288 000
522: North and East Wheat Belt343 000(16)382 000
531: South West69 000(19)119 000

ABARES Australian broadacre zones and regions

 ABARES Australian broadacre zones and regions
Note: Each region is identified by a unique code of three digits. The first digit identifies the state or territory, the second digit identifies the zone and the third digit identifies the region.
Source: ABARES

Performance of beef industry farms — Western Australia

In 2014–15, a 24 per cent increase in average beef cattle prices and higher turn-off of beef cattle for both live export and slaughter, particularly from the pastoral regions of the Kimberley and Pilbara, resulted in average farm cash income of Western Australian beef farms increasing from an average of $56 900 a farm in 2013–14 to an average of $186 400 in 2014–15 (refer to figure below).

Beef cattle turn-off is projected to have increased slightly in 2015–16 and together with a further increase in saleyard prices for beef cattle will result in higher farm receipts, more than offsetting an expected increase in expenditure on purchase of beef cattle. Average farm cash income of Western Australian beef farms is projected to have increased to average $301 000 a farm in 2015–16. If achieved, this would be more than triple the 10–year average to 2014–15 of $82 500.

Real farm cash income, beef industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details:  Real farm cash income, beef industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey

Performance of sheep industry farms — Western Australia

In 2014–15, higher prices for sheep and lambs combined with increased turn-off resulted in farm cash income of Western Australian sheep industry farms increasing to average $105 700 a farm (refer to figure below).

In 2015–16, higher sheep, lamb and wool prices are projected to have resulted in a further increase in farm cash income of sheep industry farms to average $133 000 a farm. This is more than double the 10–year average to 2014–15 of $62 500.

Real farm cash income, sheep industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, sheep industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey

Performance of grains industry farms — Western Australia

Incomes of Western Australian grains farms decreased slightly in 2014–15 to an average of $423 100 a farm as a result of reduced winter crop production compared with the very large 2013–14 crop (second largest on record) and despite a small reduction in total farm cash costs as a result of lower fuel prices and lower interest rates (refer to figure below).

In 2015–16, crop receipts are projected to have declined as a result of slightly lower wheat and barley yields and lower grain quality driven by variable seasonal conditions. The impact of lower grain receipts is expected to have been partly offset by pool payments received in 2015–16 for grain delivered in 2014–15 and by increased wool receipts on grains farms with sheep. Overall, average farm cash income of Western Australian grains farms is projected to have decreased slightly to an average of $414 000 a farm. This is still around 62 per cent above the 10–year average to 2014–15 of $256 000 a farm.

Real farm cash income, grains industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, grains industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Agricultural and Grazing Industries Survey

Performance of dairy industry farms — Western Australia

Average farm cash income of Western Australian dairy farms increased from an average of $161 260 a farm in 2013–14 to $234 900 in 2014–15 (refer to table below) as a result of both higher milk prices and higher milk production. Higher milk receipts were augmented by increased receipts from the sale of beef and dairy cattle as average sale prices for cattle increased, but farm cash costs were also higher as expenditure on fodder increased to achieve the increase in milk production.

In 2015–16, farm cash income of Western Australian dairy industry farms is projected to have increased further to an average of $259 000 a farm, around 52 per cent above the 10–year average to 2015–16 (refer to figure below). This is the result of a further increase in milk production 2015–16, together with increased receipts from the sale of dairy and beef cattle as a result of higher cattle prices. The resulting increase in total farm cash receipts is expected to have more than offset further increases in total farm cash costs.

The increase in the average farm cash income projected for Western Australia in 2015–16, contrasts with the decline projected for other states as a result of lower farm gate milk prices, lower milk production and higher cash costs of production, particularly as a result of drier seasonal conditions in Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia.

Real farm cash income, dairy industry, 2001–02 to 2015–16, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, dairy industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Dairy Industry Survey


Financial performance, Western Australia dairy industries
2013–14 to 2015–16, average per farm
Performance indicator 2013–14 2014–15 p RSE 2015–16 y


Source: ABARES Australian Dairy Industry Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
a Excludes capital appreciation
b Excludes leased plant and equipment
c Average per responding farm
d Equity expressed as a percentage of farm capital
e Rate of return to farm capital at 1 July
f Off-farm income of owner manager and spouse
na Not available
Total cash receipts ($) 1 085 070 1 258 300 (6) 1 358 000
Total cash costs ($) 923 800 1 023 300 (7) 1 099 000
Farm cash income ($) 161 260 234 900 (10) 259 000
Farms with negative farm cash income (%) 8 4 (20) 5
Farm business profit ($) 70 910 149 400 (20) 107 000
Profit at full equity a ($) 191 820 263 700 (11) 224 000
Farm capital at 30 June b ($) 9 564 860 9 952 600 (11) na
Farm debt at 30 June c ($) 1 160 880 1 104 300 (14) 1 174 000
Equity ratio c d (%) 88 89 (2) na
Rate of return a e (%) 2.1 2.7 (15) 2.2
Off-farm income c f ($) 12 290 14 700 (35) na

Performance of vegetable growing farms — Western Australia

There were 322 vegetable growing farms in Western Australia in 2014–15, accounting for around 12 per cent of Australian vegetable growing farms. Most farms were located along the coast extending north and south from Perth, around Carnarvon along the Gascoigne River and in the far north of the state in the Ord River irrigation area.

Average farm cash income of vegetable growing farms in Western Australia is estimated to have increased in 2014–15 to around $392 600 a farm (refer to table below), mainly as a result of increases in average prices received for vegetables.

Physical and financial performance, Western Australia vegetable industry,
2012–13 to 2014–15, average per farm
Selected estimates 2012–13 RSE 2013–14 p RSE 2014–15 y RSE


Source: ABARES Australian Vegetable Growing Farms Survey
RSE Standard error expressed as a percentage of the estimate provided
p Preliminary estimate
y Provisional estimate
Vegetable cash receipts ($) 1 044 560 (13) 1 237 800 (17) 1 107 000 (26)
Area sown to vegetables (hectares) 29 (17) 28 (15) 26 (26)
Quantity vegetables produced (tonnes) 1 184 (20) 1 129 (14) 1 186 (31)
Farm cash income ($) 273 550 (20) 392 600 (19) 298 000 (34)

Average farm cash income is estimated to have declined in 2014–15 to $298 000 a farm, still around 8 per cent higher than the 10–year average for Western Australia to 2014–15 (refer to figure below).

Despite reduction in the average area planted to vegetables and widespread wind damage to vegetable crops around Carnarvon caused by Cyclone Olwyn in March 2015, increased yields for most vegetable types resulted in vegetable production remaining similar to 2013–14. Prices for cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce increased in 2014–15 but these were more than offset by lower prices for broccoli, potato and tomato, resulting in lower average vegetable cash receipts.

Real farm cash income, vegetable industry
2005–06 to 2014–15, average per farm

Refer to tablular data for details: Real farm cash income, vegetable industry, average per farm
Note: y Provisional estimate.
Source: ABARES Australian Vegetable Growing Farms Survey

Fisheries sector

In 2013–14, the gross value of Western Australian fisheries production (both aquaculture and wild–catch) was $489.9 million, an increase of 15 per cent ($63.1 million) from 2012–13. Western Australia accounted for 20 per cent of the total value of Australian fisheries production in 2013–14. In value terms, the wild–catch sector accounted for around 85 per cent ($416.8 million) of the state's total production and the aquaculture sector accounted for the remaining 15 per cent ($73.1 million).

Western Australia's wild–catch sector is dominated by the production of western rocklobster, which accounted for around 77 per cent of the state's total wild–catch production in 2013–14. Other major wild–catch seafood products include prawns (9 per cent) and abalone (2 per cent). Over the past decade the real value of Western Australian wild–caught fisheries is estimated to have declined by 21 per cent. The decline in value was mostly driven by a 53 per cent decline in total production volume.

The product for which the real value of production declined most over the past decade is western rocklobster, falling by 7 per cent to $321 million in 2013–14. This was the result of a 57 per cent reduction in the volume caught following adverse seasonal conditions and the introduction of catch limits in 2009–10. A large proportion of rocklobster production is exported, mostly to Hong Kong. Exchange rate movements have a significant effect on the value of rocklobster exports and, in turn, production.

Prawns also account for a significant proportion of Western Australian wild–catch production, accounting for an estimated 15 per cent and 9 per cent of the total volume and value, respectively, of wild–catch production in 2013–14. The value of prawn production increased by 35 per cent to $36 million in 2013–14. This mostly reflects a 27 per cent decline in production volume.

The real value of Western Australian aquaculture has declined over the past decade by 57 per cent to $73.1 million in 2013–14. Most of the decline can be attributed to a reduction in the value of pearl oyster production.

The value of aquaculture production in 2013–14 declined by 24 per cent ($23 million) to $73.1 million. This reduction was mainly the result of an $18 million drop (23 per cent) in the value of pearl production. Pearls are the most valuable aquaculture product in the state and contributed around 83 per cent ($60.7 million) of aquaculture production value in 2013–14. The edible seafood component of Western Australia's aquaculture sector accounted for 17 per cent ($12.1 million) of total aquaculture production value in 2013–14.

In 2013–14, Western Australia's seafood product exports were valued at $393.4 million, representing a 29 per cent increase in value compared with 2012–13. The main export seafood product is western rocklobster, which accounted for 91 per cent of the state's exports of seafood in 2013–14. Other major export seafood products include prawns (5 per cent) and abalone (3 per cent).

Vietnam and Hong Kong are the major destination for Western Australian seafood exports, accounting for around 64 per cent and 18 per cent of the total value of exports in 2013–14 respectively. Other major export destinations include Japan (6 per cent) and the United States (5 per cent).

Recreational fishing is a popular activity in Western Australia, with an estimated 643 000 people fishing recreationally in the state (Government of Western Australia 2013). Most of the activity is in Perth and the surrounding area. Recreational fishing makes a significant contribution to the state economy and attracts thousands of visitors to regional Western Australia each year (Government of Western Australia 2013). There is also a large charter boat sector providing recreational fishing experiences to local, interstate and international tourists.

Forestry sector

In 2013–14, the total plantation area in Western Australia was approximately 391 500 hectares, comprised of approximately 287 300 hectares of hardwood plantations, 98 500 hectares of softwood plantations and 5 700 hectares of other plantations. The main hardwood species planted is blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) and the main softwood species planted are maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and radiata pine (Pinus radiata).

In 2011, the most recent year for which data are available, there were approximately 18.8 million hectares of native forests in Western Australia, comprised mainly of Eucalypt medium woodland (6.4 million hectares), Eucalypt mallee woodland (5.6 million hectares), Acacia (3.2 million hectares) and Eucalypt medium open (1.6 million hectares) forest types. Approximately 6.0 million hectares of native forests are on other Crown land, 5.6 million hectares are leasehold forest, 4.6 million hectares are in nature conservation reserves, 1.3 million hectares are privately owned and 1.3 million hectares are multiple-use forest for wood production (refer to figure below). Major timber industries are located at Albany, Bunbury, Dardanup, Dwellingup, Manjimup, Middlesex, Mount Barker, Neerabup and Yarloop.

Display: Colour graph Tabular data Both graph and table

Area of native forest, by tenure, Western Australia

Refer to tablular data for details: Area of native forest, by tenure for Western Australia
Source: ABARES Australia's State of the Forests Report 2013



In 2014–15, the volume of native hardwood logs harvested was 331 000 cubic metres valued at $26 million. The volume of plantation hardwood logs harvested was 3.4 million cubic metres valued at $239 million. The volume of softwood harvested was 969 000 cubic metres valued at $61 million.

Sales and service income of the Western Australia wood product industry was estimated at $949 million in 2013–14.

In 2011, Western Australia's forestry sector employed 5 580 workers (0.5 per cent of the total employed workforce in Western Australia) compared with 5 972 (0.5 per cent) in 2006. The number of people employed includes forestry support services and timber wholesaling.

References

ABS 2011, Census of Population and Housing, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

ABS 2015, Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, Quarterly, Nov 2015, cat. no. 6291.0.55.003, Australian Bureau Statistics, Canberra.

ABS 2016a, Agricultural Commodities, Australia, 2014–2015, cat. no. 7121.0, Australian Bureau Statistics, Canberra.

ABS 2016b, Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2014–15, cat. no. 7503.0, Australian Bureau Statistics, Canberra.

ABARES 2015, Catchment scale land use of Australia – update March 2015, ABARES, Canberra, April. CC by 3.0. http://www.agriculture.gov.au/abares/publications/display?url=http://143.188.17.20/anrdl/DAFFService/display.php?fid=pb_luausg9abll20150415_11a.xml

ABARES 2016, Australian forest and wood products statistics: September and December quarters 2015, Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, Canberra, May.

Government of Western Australia 2013, Recreational Fishing Guide 2013 - simpler rules for better fishing, Department of Fisheries, Perth.

Montreal Process Implementation Group for Australia and National Forest Inventory Steering Committee 2013, Australia's State of the Forests Report 2013, ABARES, Canberra, December.