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Known introduction to Australia

Megabalanus tintinnabulum (acorn barnacle)

General Information

picture of Megabalanus tintinnabulum

Henry & McLaughlin, 1986

diagram of Megabalanus tintinnabulum

Diagram: Jones, 1990; Henry & McLaughlin, 1986

Distribution Maps

  • World distribution and Australian distribution by regions - This map shows the world distribution of this species by IUCN bioregion.
  • Australian detections and potential range map - This map shows the Australian distribution of this species (as determined by port monitoring or other notification) and its potential range around the Australian coastline.
  • Description

    (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Megabalanus tintinnabulum is a medium sized barnacle, growing to a height of 50 mm and having a diameter of about 65 mm. It is often striped and ribbed longitudinally along the shell, which is a pinkish-white to pinkish-purple in colour. The operculum plates are used to identify this species.


    Taxonomy

    Phylum Arthropoda
    Subphylum Crustacea
    Class Cirripedia
    Suborder Balanomorpha
    Super Family Balanoidea
    Family Balanidae
    Genus Megabalanus

     

    Other names

    Synonyms Balanus tintinnabulum antillensis
    Balanus tintinnabulum communis
    Balanus tintinnabulum tintinnabulum
    Lepas tintinnabulum
    Megabalanus antillensis
    Common names acorn barnacle

    Similar species

    Megabalanus validis

     

    Adult temperature range Max 36.0 °C
    Reproductive temperature range
    Adult salinity range
    Reproductive salinity range
    Depth Min 0 m Max 40 m
    Habitat type Substrate
       Bedrock
       Reef
       Vessel
       Wood
    Tidal range
       Low-tide
       Sub-tidal
    Vectors for introduction Vessels

    Please use the following citation for this material
    NIMPIS 2014, Megabalanus tintinnabulum general information, National Introduced Marine Pest Information System, viewed 23 April 2014 <http://www.marinepests.gov.au/nimpis>.

    Habitat

    As M. tintinnabulum is a common fouling species, it is found in many types of habitat. These include rock and boulder areas, pylons, wharves, vessel hulls and even other organisms such as mussels and algae. It can be found to a depth of 40 m and is distributed throughout both the intertidal and subtidal zones. It is also able to withstand temperatures up to 35 °C.

    Habitat classification

    For the purposes of NIMPIS, habitats have been divided into four categories: Hard, soft, water and organism. The habitat types assigned to these categories reflect the variety of substrata available for organisms to colonise. Habitat types listed for this species are those that have been recorded in the literature.

    Hard

    This category contains both natural and artificial habitats that are solid, fixed or permanent substrata. Species can reside on (e.g. attached externally) or within (e.g. boring into) the habitat type.

    • Bedrock
    • Reef
    • Vessel
    • Wood

    Organism

    This category is used for species that reside on or within another organism.

    • ism-Organism
    • ism-Organism
    • ism-Organism

    Tidal Range

    • Low-tide
    • Sub-tidal

    Habitat survival parameters

    Minimum Maximum
    Adult temperature °C
    36.0 °C
    M. tintinnabulum took 810 minutes to reach 100% mortality when exposed to 36 °C (Samuel Jesudoss et al 1997)
    Adult salinity ppt
    ppt
    Dissolved oxygen N/a
    N/a

    Reproduction and growth

    The breeding season for M. tintinnabulum begins when water temperatures begin to rise. This species is a hermaphrodite, but fertilisation occurs by mating with another individual. Egg brooding and fertilisation are internal, with larvae being released into the water column for a short period of time before they settle on the substrata.
    Minimum reproductive temperature N/a
    Maximum reproductive temperature N/a
    Cues Breeding season occurs when temperature rises (Yamaguchi 1973).
    Strategy Hermaphrodite, internal fertilization and brooding. Free-swimming nauplius - cyprid larvae (Jones, 1990).
    Season N/a

    Life cycle

    Age to maturity

    Please use the following citation for this material
    NIMPIS 2014, Megabalanus tintinnabulum reproduction and habitat, National Introduced Marine Pest Information System, viewed 23 April 2014 <http://www.marinepests.gov.au/nimpis>.

    Feeding Preferences

    Trophic status: suspension feeder

    Phytoplankton and other organic matter are filtered from the water column by M. tintinnabulum for food.

    Food

    adult Phytoplankton
    larvae Phytoplankton. Diatoms, e.g. (Chaetoceros wighami) (Thiyagarajan et al 1997).

    Competitors

    Stage: adult Other fouling organisms competing for food and space resources (Hirata 1987.)

    Predators

    There are no known predators of this species, however it can be overgrown by mussels, tunicates, algae and other fouling species.

    Please use the following citation for this material
    NIMPIS 2014, Megabalanus tintinnabulum feeding and predators, National Introduced Marine Pest Information System, viewed 23 April 2014 <http://www.marinepests.gov.au/nimpis>.

    Impacts

    M. tintinnabulum is a cosmopolitan fouling species, and one of the most common species of barnacle found fouling vessels.

    Vectors

    Descriptions of the vector types that are relevant to this species are displayed below.

    Vessels

    This class encompasses vectors associated with maritime transport and shipping activities. Vessels includes; commercial ships (e.g. tankers, container ships, ferries, barges), fishing vessels, recreational vessels, passenger vessels, drilling platforms and research vessels. An example of a vector from this class is ballast water,which has been found to transport up to 10 000 different species at any one time. Other vectors associated with this class include: dry ballast, biofouling community

    Biofouling Fouling communities are typically composed of encrusting or sessile species, however they can include mobile species. This vector can introduce species through a variety of means. Three examples are: (1) The spawning of a fouling species on a vessel in port and its successful settlement and establishment of a reproductive population; (2) The dislodgement of fouling species from a vessel in port through abrasion with wharf structures, ropes, etc., or through in water vessel hull cleaning (banned in Australia) or through high vessel speeds, etc.; and (3) The sinking of fouled vessels either deliberately or accidentally can introduce new species to a location. There are a variety of vectors capable of having a fouling community. Characteristics of a fouling community found on wooden boat hulls include: having a wood boring habit; a benthic sessile or encrusting stage; and mobile adults or larval stages. Fouling communities found within sea chests, anchor wells etc. often are mobile crevice occupying species or known obligate associate of fouling species and can escape into new locations.
    Ballast water The release of species in ballast water discharged from vessels. Various types and life stages of species can be transported in ballast water, including plankton, crustaceans, fish, larvae, eggs or cysts. Ballast water is used in commercial vessels to stabilise the vessel and is uploaded or discharged depending on the amount of cargo onboard. Ballast water as a vector also includes sediments that accumulate in the bottom of ballast tanks. Species that are able to survive within these sediments include those that have a resistant stage or resting cyst (eg. dinoflagellates) as well as adult stages of benthic organisms.
    Dry ballast The accidental release of species with solid ballast. Though solid ballast has predominantly been replaced by ballast water, it historically was used in vessels to stabilise the ship during transit. Dry ballast included rocks, sand, wood and other substrata collected from the foreshore and hence many intertidal species were also unintentionally included. When no longer required, this dry ballast was disposed of, usually overboard or onto the foreshore for subsequent use, releasing organisms to a new environment.
    Fisheries - accidental (not mollusc) The accidental translocation of species through aquaculture and fisheries activities. This vector includes the accidental release of live fish, crustaceans and molluscs (other than oysters) imported for human consumption, This vector also includes the accidental translocation of species attached to aquaculture gear (floats, cages, etc).
    Packing material The accidental release of species associated with seaweed (and other packing materials) for bait and fishery products. These packaging materials are often disposed of at sea by fishers, which can release organisms into the marine environment.
    Fisheries - accidental (products) The accidental translocation of species through aquaculture and fisheries activities. This vector includes the accidental release of live fish, crustaceans and molluscs (other than oysters) imported for human consumption, This vector also includes the accidental translocation of species attached to aquaculture gear (floats, cages, etc).

    Please use the following citation for this material
    NIMPIS 2014, Megabalanus tintinnabulum impacts and vectors, National Introduced Marine Pest Information System, viewed 23 April 2014 <http://www.marinepests.gov.au/nimpis>.

    Additional Information

    General Notes

    adult Cosmopolitan fouling species - Atlantic Ocean, W Africa, from Mediterranean to Cape of Good Hope, E Mediterranean, Madagascar, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean, Thailand, Formosa, Sagami Bay, Japan, Malay Arch., E Indian Arch., Australia, New Zealand, Palau Is. In Australia - WA (Rockingham to Institute Is) and NSW (see Jones et al 1990).
    Habitat submerged epibiotic fouling species, occurring at LWN to LWS on wave exposed coasts. Attached to rocks, kelps, floating cane, ships, mollusc shells (e.g. Mytilus sp., Cypraea sp., Patellae) and echinoids (Jones 1990a).
    Submerged epibiotic fouling species occurring from low water neap levels to 40 m depth. One of the most common ship fouling barnacles (Jones 1990a). Littoral to sublittoral (and fouling) (Jones et al 1990).
    larvae Free-swimming naupilius larvae develops into cyprid larvae which attaches to substratum. Attachment to substrates by secreting proteinous cement from cement gland of free-swimming cyprid.

    Identification Notes

    adult Shell conic or tubulo-conic, carino-rostral diameter 35 mm, basal diameter 65 mm, height 50 mm; 6 parietal plates varying in colour from pinkish white to pinkish purple, radii blue violet to dark purple. Shell often striped and ribbed longitudinally, orifice sometimes toothed, scutum with articular ridge broad and reflexed; tergum with basal margin generally forming straight line on opposite side of spur (Jones 1990).
    larvae Daniel, 1958 described setal differences between Megabalanus tintinnabulum and M. rosa include the number of setae on the exopod and endopod of the antenna and mandible of all stages except Stage I. Megabalanus tintinnabulum always has fewer setae than M. rosa larvae (Kado and Hirano 1994).

    Similar Species

    adult Megabalanus validis (Jones 1990b).

    Please use the following citation for this material
    NIMPIS 2014, Megabalanus tintinnabulum additional information, National Introduced Marine Pest Information System, viewed 23 April 2014 <http://www.marinepests.gov.au/nimpis>.

    References

    • Berdar, A., Costa, F., Giordano, D., Mento, G., Rigano, G., Spalletta, B. (1996) The establishment of Lepas anatifera Linnaeus 1797 and Megabalanus tintinnabulum tintinnabulum (Linn.) 1758 (Crustacea:Cirripedia) in the straits of Messina. Rivista di Parassitologia 57(2), pp241-250.

    • Daniel, A. (1957a) Illumination and its effect on the settlement of barnacle cyprids. Proccedings of the Zoological Society of London 129(3), pp305-313.

    • Daniel, A. (1958) The development and metamorphosis of three species of sessile barnacles. J. Madras Univ. 28(sect B), pp23-47.

    • Darwin (1854) A monograph on the sub-class Cirripedia, the Balanidae, the Vernicidae. Ray. Soc. London , pp194-205.

    • Foster, B.A. (1967) A guide to the littoral Balanomorph Barnacles of New Zealand. Tuatra 15, pp75-86.

    • Henry, D.P.,McLaughlin, P.A. (1986) The recent species of Megabalanus (Cirrepedia: Balanomorpha) with special emphasis on Balanus tintinnabulum (Linnaeus) Sensu Lato. Zoologische Verhandelingen 235, pp1-69.

    • Huang, Z.G., Cai, R.X., Jiang, J.X., Cai, E.X., Wu, Q.Q. (1982) Biofouling on the buoys off Qiongzhou Channel and Leizhou Peninsula Coast, South China Sea. Oceanologica et Limnologia Sinica 13(3), pp259-266.

    • Jones, D., Anderson, J.T., Anderson, D.T. (1990) Checklist of the Australian Cirripedia. Technical Reports of the Australian Museum 3, pp1-38.

    • Jones, D. S. (1990) A guide to the shallow- water barnacles (Cirripedia: Lepadomorpha, Balanomorpha) of the Shark Bay area, Western Australia. Report of the France Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee , pp209-229.

    • Jones, D.S. (1990) A guide to the shallow water barnacles (Cirripedia: Lepadomorpha, Balanomorpha) of the Shark Bay area, Western Australia. Report of the France Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee , pp209-229.

    • Jones, D. S. (1990) The shallow-water barnacles (Cirripedia: Lepadomorpha, Balanomorpha) of southern Western Australia. IN: Proceedings of the third international marine biological workshop: The marine flora and fauna of Albany, Western Australia. (Eds. Wells, F. E., Walker, D. I., Kirkman, H., Lethbr) Western Australian Museum,, pp332-437.

    • Jones, D. S. (1992) A review of Australian fouling barnacles. Asian Marine Biology 9, pp89-100.

    • Jones, D.S., Berry, P.F. (2000) Crustacea of the Montebello Islands. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 59, pp59-63.

    • Lacombe, D. (1982) Barnacles along the Brazilian Coast. Part 1. Barnacles in the north-eastern and south-eastern regions. Atlantica 5(2), pp70.

    • Newman, W.A., Ross, A. (1976) Revision of the Balanomorph barnacles; including a catalog of the species. San Diego Society of Natural History Memoir 9, pp1-108.

    • Newman, W. A., Ross, A. (1976) Revision of the balanomorph barnacles; including a catalog of the species. San Diego Society of Natural History Memoirs 9, pp1-108.

    • Nilsson-Cantell, C. (1938) Cirripedes from the Indian Ocean in the collection of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. Memoirs of the Indian Museum 13(1), pp81+3pls.

    • Pilsbry (1916) The sessile barnacles contained in the collections of the U.S. National Museum: including a monograph of American species. Bulletin, United States National Museum. 93, pp1-366.

    • Samuel Jesudoss, K., Gunasingh Masilamoni, J., Nandakumar, K.V.K., Azariah, N., Azariah, J. (1997) Temperature tolerance and Impact of Power Plant heated effluents on Megabalanus tintinnabulum. (http://www.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/~macer/index.html),,

    • Southward, A.J., Newman, W.A. (1977) Aspects of the ecology and biogeography of the intertidal and shallow-water Balanomorph cirripedia of the Caribbean and adjacent sea-areas. FAO Fisheries Report 200, pp407-425.

    • Thiyagarajan, V., Venugopalan, V.P., Subramonian, T., Nair, K.V.K. (1997) Description of the naupliar stages of Megabalanus tintinnabulum (Cirripedia:Balanidae). Journal of Crustacean Biology 17(2), pp332-342.